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Introduction to the 

C s Commodore 

AMIGA 

2000 



® 



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Introduction to the 



commodore 



d7 




AMm 



2000 



COPYRIGHT 

This manual Copyright ©1985, 1986, 1987 Commodore-Amiga, Inc., All Rights Reserved. This document may not, in 
whole or in part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or reduced to any electronic medium or machine 
readable form without prior consent, in writing, from Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 

All software described in this manual Copyright ©1985, 1986 Commodore-Amiga, Inc., All Rights Reserved. The 
distribution and sale of these products are intended for the use of the original purchaser only. Lawful users of these 
programs are hereby licensed only to read the programs, from their media into memory of a computer, solely for the 
purpose of executing the programs. Duplicating or copying lor other than backup purposes, or selling or otherwise 
distributing these products is a violation of the law. 

DISCLAIMER 

COMMODORE-AMIGA, INC., MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT 
TO THE PROGRAMS DESCRIBED HEREIN, THEIR QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FIT- 
NESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 

THESE PROGRAMS ARE SOLD "AS IS." THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THEIR QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE IS 
WITH THE BUYER. SHOULD THE PROGRAMS PROVE DEFECTIVE FOLLOWING THEIR PURCHASE, THE 
BUYER (AND NOT THE CREATORS OF THE PROGRAMS, COMMODORE-AMIGA, INC., THEIR DISTRIBUTORS, 
OR THEIR RETAILERS) ASSUMES THE ENTIRE COST OF ALL NECESSARY DAMAGES. 

IN NO EVENT WILL COMMODORE-AMIGA, INC., BE LIABLE FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT. INCIDENTAL, OR CONSE- 
QUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE PROGRAMS EVEN IF IT HAS BEEN ADVISED 
OF THE POSSIBLITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SOME LAWS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF 
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR LIABLITIES FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE 
LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY. 

Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 

Amiga Transformer is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 

Commodore and CBM are registered trademarks of Commodore Electronics Limited. 

Bridgeboard is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 

Alphacom is a registered trademark and Alphapro is a trademark of Alphacom, Inc. 

Apple is a registered trademark and ImageWriter is a trademark of Apple Computers, Inc 

Brother is a registered trademark of Brother Industries, Ltd. 

Centronics is a registered trademark of Data Computer Corporation. 

Diablo and Xerox are registered trademarks of Xerox Corporation. 

Epson is a registered trademark and FX-80, JX-80, and RX-80 are trademarks of Epson America, Inc. 

Hayes is a registered trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

IBM and IBM PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. 

LaserJet and LaserJet PLUS are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Company. 

Macintosh Plus is a registered trademark of Macintosh Laboratories. 

MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

Okidata is a registered trademark and Microline and Okimate 20 are trademarks of Okidata, a division of Oki America, 

Inc. 

Qume is a registered trademark and LetterPro 20 is a trademark of Qume Corporation. 

WARNING: This equipment has been certified to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device, pursuant to 
subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules. Only peripherals (computer input/output devices, terminals, printers, etc.) certified 
to comply with the Class B limits may be attached to this computer. Operation with non-certified peripherals is likely to 
result in interference to radio and TV reception. 

Information in Chapter 7, AmigaDOS and the CLI, used by permission of Bantam Computer Books. 

THE PRODUCT DOES NOT NECESSARILY RESEMBLE THE PICTURE INSIDE THE USER'S MANUAL 



About This Manual 



This manual is designed to let you set up and start using your Amiga 
2000 with a minimum of effort. The manual includes nine chapters, a 
set of appendices, a glossary and an index. Here's a brief description of 
each part of this manual: 

Chapter 1 , Introduction, summarizes the general features and capabili- 
ties of the Amiga 2000. 

Chapter 2, Setting Up the Amiga, shows how to put your Amiga 
together. If you're using an Amiga for the first time, read Chapter 3, 
Getting Started, to learn the basics. 

Chapter 4, Using the Workbench, describes the nuts and bolts of using 
Workbench — to familiarize yourself with elements like icons, menus, 
and using the mouse. 

Chapter 5, Workbench Tools, tells about the useful tools available 
through the Workbench disk, including Amiga's built-in clock, calcula- 
tor, notepad, icon editor, speech synthesizer, graphic dump, and inter- 
national keymap selector. 

Chapter 6, Using Preferences, explains how to customize your Amiga 
by changing the settings on the Preferences utility of Workbench. 

Chapter 7, AmigaDOS and the CLI, explains how to use the Amiga 
Disk Operating System by typing in commands directly, via the Com- 
mand Line Interface (CLI). 

Chapter 8, Adding to the Amiga 2000, describes printers, extra mem- 
ory, disk drives, modems and other hardware peripherals available for 
your Amiga. 

Chapter 9, Caring for the Amiga 2000, gives advice on how to keep 
your Amiga in good working order. 

Appendix A, Technical Reference, contains technical specifications, 
and diagrams of input/output connectors. 

Appendix B, AmigaDOS Reference, contains summaries of AmigaDOS 
CLI and screen editor (ED) commands, as well as a list of Amiga error 
numbers and what to do when you get the errors. 



Appendix C, Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard, describes the four 
sections of the keyboard and tells you which keys to use to perform 
typical mouse functions such as moving the pointer, selecting, and 
using menus. This appendix also includes keymaps of Amiga 2000 
keyboard configurations for different countries. 

Appendix D, Printer Escape Codes, summarizes the escape codes the 
Amiga uses to communicate with printers. 

Appendix E, Amiga Bibliography, lists the guides and reference books 
for the Amiga system available from publishers. 

Appendix F, Amiga Schematics, contains detailed technical diagrams of 
the inner workings of the Amiga. 

The Glossary defines important special terms. (Terms from the glossary 
are shown in italics when they first appear in the text.) 

The Index lists the pages containing information on any specific subject. 



For More Information 

The capabilities of the Amiga 2000 are so extensive that they cannot be fully 
covered in a single book. For more information on how the Amiga works, see the 
Amiga Hardware Manual, the Amiga ROM Kernel Manual, the AmigaDOS 
Manual, and Intuition: The AMIGA User Interface. These manuals are available 
from your Amiga dealer, or your local bookstore. 

See Appendix E for a listing of current Amiga reference guides and other books. 



IV 



Contents 



Chapter 1 




Introducing the Amiga 2000 


1-1 


Chapter 2 




Setting Up the Amiga 2000 


2-1 


Chapter 3 




Getting Started 


3-1 


Chapter 4 




Using the Workbench 


4-1 


Chapter 5 




Workbench Tools 


5-1 


Chapter 6 




Using Preferences 


6-1 


Chapter 7 




AmigaDOS and the CLI 


7-1 


Chapter 8 




Adding to the Amiga 2000 


8-1 


Chapter 9 




Caring for the Amiga 2000 


9-1 


Radio and Television Interference 


9-7 


Appendix A: 


Technical Reference 


A-l 


Appendix B: 


AmigaDOS Reference 


B-l 


Appendix C: 


Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 


C-l 


Appendix D: 


Printer Escape Codes 


D-l 


Appendix E: 


Amiga Bibliography 


E-l 


Appendix F: 


Amiga Schematics 


F-l 


Glossary 


Glossary 1 


Index 






Index 1 



A detailed Table of Contents appears at the beginning of 
each chapter. 



Chapter 1 



Introduction 



Introducing the Amiga 2000 1-3 

The Pans of the Amiga 2000 System 1-4 
How the Amiga Works 1-6 

General Features of the Amiga 2000 1-7 
Operating System in ROM 1-7 
Multitasking 1-7 

Graphics, Windows and Sound Support for Languages 1-8 
Standard File Format for Easy Data Interchange 1-8 
Multiple Disk Type Capability 1-8 
Generation of Complex Sound Waveforms 1-8 
Direct Text-to-Speech Conversion 1-8 
Unique Video Features 1-9 
NTSC/PAL Compatibility 1-9 
Built-in Clock/Calendar 1-9 

Expandability 1-10 

Microprocessor Add-ons 1-10 
Internal Memory Expansion 1-10 
Amiga Expansion Slots 1-10 
PC-XT/ AT Expansion Slots 1-10 
Video Expansion Slot 1-11 
Multiple Disk Drive Expansion 1-11 

Options 1-11 

Hybrid Amiga Systems and the Bndgeboard 1-11 

MIDI Interface 1-12 

genlock 1-12 

Floppy Disk Drives 1-13 

Hard Disk ST506/SCSI Controller 1-13 

Summary of Amiga 2000 Specifications 1-13 



Introduction 1-1 



This chapter introduces you to the Amiga® 2000 by briefly describing its 
capabilities and potential. 

The first part of the chapter describes the components of the Amiga system and 
summarizes how they work; this section is addressed primarily to those unfamil- 
iar with the Amiga series of computers. 

The second part of the chapter summarizes the key features of the Amiga 2000; 
this section is addressed primarily to those users whose interests are more 
technical. Whatever your level of experience or your interests or application 
needs, however, you will find that the Amiga 2000 meets your computing needs. 



Introducing The Amiga 2000 

The Amiga 2000 offers a spectrum of capabilities so wide, so sophisticated, so 
versatile and so affordable as to be unrivalled in the microcomputer field. Yet all 
this power and sophistication have been made so accessible, so easy to control 
that even a computer novice can be up and running with a minimum of effort. 

The Amiga 2000 retains all the features that inspired reviewers to dub the 
original Amiga 1000 "the Maserati of microcomputers" — high speed/high effi- 
ciency processing; superb graphic and video resources; advanced stereo sound 
and music capabilities; the ability to perform a number of tasks simultaneously 
(multitasking operation); a unique file structure that allows programs to exchange 
data of various types (program code, text, graphics, sound); easy expandability; 
and more. In the Amiga 2000, these features are enhanced and new ones are 
added. Here are just two examples: 

• The Amiga 2000 comes equipped with a full megabyte of RAM, and 
you can add up to eight megabytes internally. All this RAM is 
directly accessible, eliminating the time that other microcomputers 
must spend in indirectly accessing expansion RAM (e.g., by using a 
RAM disk scheme or paging). The result is that the A2000 enjoys a 
considerable advantage in processing speed. 

• The Amiga 2000' s flexible open architecture supports the easy instal- 
lation of a variety of powerful expansion options. For instance, with 
the optional Bridgeboard™ (described later in this chapter) you 
have, in addition to full Amiga capabilities, everything required for 
IBM PC®-XT compatible operation. You can even combine the 
Amiga and Bridgeboard capabilities, integrating them under the 
Amiga operating system to take advantage of its unique features, 
such as flexible windows and multi-tasking. 

Introduction 1-3 



Later in this chapter there is a detailed list of Amiga 2000 features, but the two 
items listed above should assure you that in selecting the Amiga 2000 you have 
chosen one of the most advanced microcomputers available today. 



The Parts of the Amiga 2000 System 



The Amiga 2000 system consists of a number of separate components: 




If you are new to computers in general or to the Amiga in particular, the system 
photo above and the capsule descriptions following will help you identify the 
components of the Amiga 2000, and to understand their basic functions: 



• The Main Unit is the large boxlike 
component. It houses microchips 
containing the CPU (central pro- 
cessing unit) and other memory 
and processing circuitry (e.g., 
sound and graphics chips); ex- 
pansion slots into which you can 
insert optional circuit cards for ad- 
ditional memory, co-processors, 
PC-compatible expansion, etc.; 
and a variety of jacks, connectors 
or ports, through which you can 
attach external equipment (e.g., 
printers, modems, extra disk 
drives). 




1-4 



Introduction 



• The Mouse is a small hard ball 
enclosed in a palm-sized housing. 
You use the mouse to move from 
place to place on the display 
screen in order to select Amiga 
functions and capabilities. The 
mouse is connected to one of the 
ports on the main unit. 




The Keyboard resembles that of a 
typewriter, with some extra keys. 
A coiled cord connects the key- 
board to the main unit. The key- 
board is used to enter commands 
and data and to respond to 
prompts or messages from the 
computer. With 94 keys (96 keys 
in the international version), the 
Amiga keyboard is among the 
most complete keyboards avail- 
able in the microcomputer field. 
The number of functions available 
through the keyboard can be ex- 
tended through the use of multi- 
key sequences. See Appendix C 
for details on keyboard layout and 
functions. 




The Software Disks are 3Vi 

inches square and contain instruc- 
tions that tell the computer what 
to do. 




Introduction 



1-5 





The Floppy Disk Drive(s), into 

which you insert the software flop- 
py disks so that the computer can 
read information from them and 
write information to them. 



The Monitor, which displays in- 
formation in response to actions 
taken by you or the computer. The 
monitor (which may be one of sev- 
eral types, and which may or may 
not be included as part of the 
Amiga 2000 package, depending 
on the country of purchase) is con- 
nected to the main unit. 



You can of course add optional peripherals like printers, modems, disk drives, 
etc., to your Amiga 2000 system. 

The Amiga 2000 package also includes all necessary connecting cables. See 
Chapter 2 for setup and connection instructions. 



How the Amiga Works 

The Amiga 2000 is a window/icon/mouse/menu/pointer type system. In gener- 
al terms, this means that you use the mouse to move a pointer (shaped like a 
small arrow) around the display screen to point to icons (i.e., small pictures) that 
identify some item or function that you want to select. In some cases the 
selection involves the display of a menu (a list of options), from which you can 
choose the appropriate item. The display and selection process may also involve 
one or more windows (i.e., discrete areas of the display that can accept or 
display information). In working with the Amiga, you often will be using a 
software tool known as the Workbench™, which incorporates menus and 
windows and other Amiga items as well. For more details on how the Amiga 
icon-driven system works, see Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. 



1-6 Introduction 




The remainder of this chapter is addressed primarily to programmers, develop- 
ers and others who have a strong technical interest in the Amiga 2000. This 
material is not essential to setting up the Amiga 2000 and running application 
software. 



General Features of the Amiga 2000 



Among the key features of the Amiga 2000 are the following: 



Operating System in ROM 

The Amiga 2000 has a large portion (256 Kbyte) of its operating system in ROM, 
which means that it is always directly accessible — you never need to take the 
time to load it from disk. This greatly enhances processing speed. 



Multi-tasking 

Multi-tasking — i.e., handling a number of tasks simultaneously, with each task 
being executed according to its priority — is a capability unique to the Amiga 
2000 among microcomputers in or near its price range. Part of the reason for the 
Amiga's high processing efficiency is the use of the multi-tasking feature in the 
Amiga's own operating system. 



Introduction 



1-7 



Graphics, Windows and Sound Support for Languages 

The Amiga's sophisticated graphics, windowing and sound features can be used 
in many programming languages such as AmigaBASIC® and C. 



Standard File Format for Easy Data Interchange 

The IFF (Interchange File Format) is specifically designed for use with the 
AMIGA line of personal computers. This unique format provides a standard 
structure for files, regardless of the file content: program code, text data, graphic 
data or sound data. With the IFF format, the Amiga provides a totally new ability 
to interchange data among different programs. 



Multiple Disk Type Capability 

The Amiga 2000 can use either 3 Vi or 5 l A" floppy disks, as well as a hard disk. 

Generation of Complex Sound Waveforms 

The Amiga sound system design, which features digital synthesis with a digital 
to analog converter, allows the generation of complex waveforms in real time 
without using the CPU. Other microcomputer sound systems suffer from general 

limitations imposed by designs that involve the CPU in sound generation. 

Direct Text-to-Speech Conversion 

The ability to convert text input directly to speech output is another feature 
unique to the Amiga 2000 among microcomputers in or near its price range. 



Introduction 



Unique Video Features 

The Amiga 2000 permits more than one screen on a single monitor at the same 
time. This is not available to any other system. The A2000 also has eight sprites 
and the highest number of bitplanes (six). Also, the Amiga offers a bit blitter 
running under system software control— a highly sophisticated "next genera- 
tion" feature not available on any other comparable microcomputer. 



NTSC/PAL Compatibility 

The analog RGB output signals of the Amiga 2000 conform to television 
standards, and the coded composite signal itself is available with an optional 
plug-in interface. Versions are available in both the NTSC (US) and PAL 
(European) standard. This means that the Amiga 2000 can be connected to 
standard video equipment, including monitor- and projection-type television 
displays. No special equipment is needed. The Amiga 2000 can also work in 
conjunction with television studio equipment for a wide variety of tasks, such as 
generating graphics and titles. 



Built-in Clock/Calendar 

The Amiga 2000 includes a built-in clock/calendar with a battery back-up that 
maintains the time and date even when the computer is turned off. 



Introduction 1-9 



Expandability 

Among the most important attributes of the Amiga 2000 are its versatile internal 
expansion capabilities, which include the following. 



Microprocessor Add-ons 

The Amiga 2000 has an internal CPU slot, which can be used to add system 
extensions such as an accelerator board, containing a Motorola 68020™ running 
at 14 MHz and a math co-processor. An accelerator board, inserted into the 
expansion slot, could replace the standard 68000 CPU, or work in parallel with 
it. 



Internal Memory Expansion 

The Amiga 2000 is internally expandable up to 9 MBytes, and the operating 
system directly addresses it all. This results in a considerable speed advantage, 
since the A2000 does not have to resort to time-consuming indirect accessing 
methods, such as the RAM disk schemes used by many other microcomputers. 



Amiga Expansion Slots 

In addition to CPU and video expansion slots, the Amiga 2000 provides seven 
additional expansion slots, including five AMIGA bus expansion slots, two of 
which also have PC/AT connectors. All expansion slots are controlled by a 
feature known as AutoConfig, which continuously provides complete informa- 
tion on the system configuration. These slots can accept memory expansions as 
well as I/O or interface boards or a hard disk controller. 



PC-XT/ AT Compatible Expansion Slots 

The Amiga 2000 provides four PC compatible slots. Two are dedicated PC/XT 
slots; the other two are the two joint Amiga — PC/AT slots described above for 
Amiga expansion. The PC slots are used in conjunction with the Bridgeboard 
option (described below). 

1-10 Introduction 



Video Expansion Slot 

The Amiga 2000 includes a video slot that permits internal video expansions, 
such as a television coder or a Genlock interface. Using this slot keeps all video 
circuitry in the metal housing and minimizes RF problems. 



Multiple Disk Drive Expansion 

The Amiga 2000 housing has mounting locations for up to three disk drives: two 
V/i drives and one half-height 5 l A" drive. The locations can accept either floppy 
disk drives or hard disk drives. The Amiga 2000 comes with at least one 3Vi" 
floppy drive installed. 



Options 



There are a number of cost-effective options specifically tailored to take advan- 
tage of the extensive expansion capabilities of the Amiga 2000. These options 
include: 



Hybrid Amiga Systems and the Bridgeboard 

In addition to the Amiga bus, the Amiga 2000 has a secondary bus system 
conforming to the IBM PC XT/ AT™ standard. An optional Commodore board 
known as the Bridgeboard can be used to connect the two bus systems. The 
Bridgeboard includes a second microprocessor (8088) and the circuitry to inter- 
face the two systems. 

This hybrid architecture may be used for applications in which the PC/XT system 
functions as a co-processor. A dual port RAM provides a wide path for the 
necessary communications between the two systems. There is full access to the 
complete range of PC compatible add-ons including an 8087 math co-processor. 



Introduction 1-11 



A software library for the Bridgeboard provides functions such as passing data 
from one side to the other and video display emulation (both color and mono- 
chrome) on the Amiga side. Special software could be written to take advantage 
of the combined chips: for example, you could mount a program that displays 
information graphically using the 68000 Amiga, while passing data for calcula- 
tion by the 8088/8087. 

One possible application of a hybrid Amiga system is running MS-DOS® on the 
Bridgeboard. In fact, the Amiga 2000 can run MS-DOS applications at the same 
time as native DOS software— and is the only microcomputer with this capa- 
bility. Another unique feature of the Amiga 2000 is its ability to show both 
monochrome and color displays on the same monitor simultaneously. If the 
system has a hard disk drive, it can be partitioned for use by both MS-DOS and 
AmigaDOS. 

With the Bridgeboard installed, the Amiga 2000 is fully equipped with 512k 
RAM and all the graphics display and printing capabilities needed to run the MS- 
DOS (or other PC-compatible operating system) and virtually any IBM® PC-XT 
compatible software packages — Lotus 1-2-3®, dBASE III®, Symphony®, etc. 



MIDI Interface 



Equipped with an optional MIDI interface, the Amiga 2000 allows you to 
interface with and control a wide variety of sophisticated computer-compatible 
music components like synthesizers, drum machines, etc. By coupling these 
MIDI capabilities with the A2000's extremely flexible built-in multivoice stereo 
sound generation capabilities, you have at your disposal a state-of-the-art music 
and sound system unmatched in the microcomputer field. 



genlock 

The Commodore genlock option can be connected to the A2000 either internally 
(via the video slot) or externally. This provides a cost-effective way to add 
sophisticated Amiga computer graphics, special effects and titles to videotapes, 
laser disk output, etc. 



1-12 Introduction 



Floppy Disk Drives 

Available from Commodore are V/i' floppy drives (Model A 1010, external; 
Model 2010, internal) and half-height 5'/t" floppy drives (Model A1020, exter- 
nal; Model A2020, internal). 



Hard Disk ST506/SCSI Controller 



The Commodore 2090 Hard Disk ST506/SCSI Controller Board provides high 
level command interpretation and controller function for two ST506 hard disk 
drives, and includes a built-in SCSI interface for the connection of high speed 
SCSI hard disk and peripherals. The board has Autoconfig and Macintosh 
Plus"' compatibility. 



Summary of Amiga 2000 Specifications 

The following is a summary of Amiga 2000 technical specifications. For the 
complete specifications, see Appendix A. 



CPU: 

Clock Speed: 
Co-Processors: 

Memory: 

ROM: 
Interfaces: 



System Slots: 



Motorola 68000, 16/32 Bit 
7.14 MHz 

3 chip co-processor system for DMA 
video, graphics and sound 

1 MB RAM standard; externally expand 

able up to a total of 9 MB 

256KB 

Keyboard 

Mouse/Joystick (2); Lightpen 

Serial (RS 232, IBM-PC compatible) 

Parallel (Centronics, IBM-PC compatible) 

Video (RGB analog, RGBI, Composite 

Monochrome) 

Stereo Audio 

External Disk Drives 

AMIGA system bus: 5 slots (100 pin) 

Secondary Bus System: 

4 slots IBM PC compatible (full size, 86 
pin) (2 slots are combined 
AMIGA-IBM PC/AT positions) 



Introduction 



1-13 



Video Slot: 
Power Supply: 
Keyboard: 

Mouse: 
Disk Drive(s): 



External Disk Drives: 



Video Display: 



Sound: 



Clock/Calendar: 
System Software: 



1 video slot for internal NSTC/PAL coder 
200 watts 

Detachable, 94 keys U.S./96 keys inter- 
national 

Optomechanical, two button system 
Standard: built-in 3'/2" floppy drive 
(capacity: 880 KB formatted) 
Mounting locations for: 

2 3'/ 2 " drives; 1 5VV half height drive 
Hard disk drive: 3Vi" or 5'/V' (half height) 
Hard disk capacity up to 120 MB 

2 AMIGA floppy disk drives 

3 MS-DOS formatted floppy disk drives 
(if Bridgeboard is installed) 

U.S.: 

525 lines/vertical, frequency 60 Hz 
International: 

625 lines/vertical, frequency 50 Hz 
Graphic co-processor; draw, fill, move 
modes 

Max 512 KB video memory, 4096 colors, 
6 bitplanes, 8 sprites per scanline, bit 
b litter 

Text Modes: 80 Characters/25 lines 
60 characters/25 lines 

4 independent sound channels configured 
as two stereo channels 

Sound buffer up to 400 KB nominal, 
maximum 512 KB 
Built-in, with battery back-up 
Multitasking; includes: AmigaDOS; 
Workbench; CLI; AmigaBASIC 



1-14 



Introduction 



Chapter 2 



Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



Location of Connectors 2-4 

Before You Start 2-5 

Attaching the Mouse 2-5 

Attaching the Keyboard 2-6 

Attaching the Video Monitor 2-7 

Connecting Audio Equipment 2-8 

Connecting the Amiga to a Stereo System 2-9 
Sound Connections for Monitors 2-9 

Plugging in the Amiga 2000 2-10 



Setting Up the Amiga 2000 2-1 



Your Amiga 2000 lakes only a few minutes to put together. Here are the things you'll 
find packaged with the Amiga: 

• the main unit 

• the power supply cord 

• the keyboard 

• the keyboard cable 

• the mouse 

• microdisks 

• manuals, including the one you're reading now 

• warranty information 

• software and service brochures 



Main Unit 



On/Off Light 



Keyboard 




Disk 
Drives 



Keyboard 
Cable 



Mouse 



Power Cord 



Setting Up the Amiga 2000 2-3 



Location of Connectors 

On the back of the main unit you'll find a number of connectors. These are 
places where you attach cables and other devices: 



Ventilator 



Power Cord 
Connector 



On/Off Switch 




Serial Port 



External 
3'/ 2 " Disk 
Drive Monochrome Audio 
Monitor Ports 

On the front of the main unit there are three connectors: two for a mouse or 
joystick, and one (the one farthest left) for the keyboard cable: 




Keyboard 
Connector 



Mouse Game 
Controllers 



2-A Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



Before You Start 



Before setting up your Amiga, be sure to read each instruction carefully. 

While it's not difficult to assemble the Amiga, it is possible to damage it if you 
don't follow the instructions. 

Note the cardboard sleeve in the disk drive. Many Amiga returns occur simply 
because care was not taken in removing the cardboard piece protecting the disk 
drive. This sleeve sits inside the disk drive opening and is designed to protect the 
drive during shipping. Make sure you press the drive button before you remove 
the cardboard piece; this releases the cardboard piece so it slides out easily. Also, 
save the piece to replace in the drive unit opening for protection during transpor- 
tation. 

Turn the computer off before inserting or removing any connectors. 

Note where the on/off switch is located: it's on the back of the main unit, on the 
right side. 

Additionally, we suggest getting a multi-outlet electrical power strip from a 
hardware store. This would allow you to connect all the electrical plugs from 
your Amiga system components, and power them all on or off with a single 
on/off switch. 

Also, when connecting cables to the Amiga, make sure you're plugging the 
correct cable into the proper connector. Remember, don't try to force a cable 
into a connector; double-check to make sure the cable matches that connector. 



Attaching the Mouse 

Before attaching a new mouse, turn the mouse upside down and pull out the 
piece of foam that holds the mouse ball in place. (If you don't get all the foam 
out, see the "Cleaning the Mouse" section in Chapter 9 to find out how to 
uncover the mouse ball.) 



Setting Up the Amiga 2000 2-5 



To attach the mouse, just plug the end of the mouse's cable into the mouse 
connector on the front of the main unit. It's a tight fit; this helps keep the plug in 
place. Be sure to press firmly. 




If you're right-handed, you'll probably want the mouse to the right of the 
keyboard. If you're left-handed, try putting the mouse to the left. Make sure that 
the place you set aside for the mouse is at least 12 inches by 12 inches (30 
centimeters by 30 centimeters) and that it's clean and flat. 



Attaching the Keyboard 

The keyboard cable is a coiled cable with a plug at the free end. Plug the free end 
into the keyboard connector on the front of the main unit. 




2-6 Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



You can change the tilt of the keyboard by folding down the two legs on the 
bottom of the keyboard. Try doing this to find which position is most comfort- 
able for you. 




For details on using the keyboard, see Appendix C. 



Attaching the Video Monitor 

The video monitor displays visual information. The Amiga uses an analog RGB 
color monitor. RGB monitors normally produce the best-quality display. The 
Amiga 1080™ and 2002™ monitors feature an analog RGB input which allows 
display of the Amiga's 4,096 colors on a screen with 640 x 400 pixel resolution. 

To attach the Amiga Monitor, use the video cable supplied with the monitor. 
Plug the small end of the video cable into the connector on the back of monitor: 




Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



2-7 



Plug the large end of the cable into the RGB connector on the back of the Amiga: 




To attach other RGB monitors, see your Amiga dealer for the correct cable and 
instructions. To attach a monochrome monitor, use the RCA plug labeled Mono 
Video. 



Connecting Audio Equipment 

The Amiga produces high-quality stereo sound. There are two connectors on the 
back of the Amiga for connecting the Amiga to audio equipment, one for the left 
audio signal and one for the right audio signal: 




You need to connect the Amiga to either an audio system or the audio input jack 
(found on some but not all monitors) to hear sounds produced by the Amiga. 



2-8 Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



Connecting the Amiga to a Stereo System 

To connect the Amiga to a stereo system, you need two cables. Each cable must 
have a plug on one end that fits the audio input connector on your amplifier or 
receiver (this is most often an RCA phono plug) and on the other end have an 
RCA phono plug to fit into the Amiga. 

On most stereo systems, there are extra inputs, often labeled "Auxiliary" or 
"Aux," to which you can attach the audio output cables from the Amiga cable. 



Sound Connections for Monitors 



Some monitors, including the Amiga Monitor, have a built-in speaker. To 
connect a monitor for sound, you need: 

• a "Y" adapter that converts the two stereo channels from the Amiga 
to a single channel 

• a cable for connecting the "Y" adapter to the audio connector on the 
monitor 

You can get "Y" adapters and connecting cables from many stores that carry 
radio and electronic parts. 

To connect the monitor, insert the two phono plugs at the top of the "Y" into the 
audio connectors on the back of the Amiga. Now insert one end of the connecting 
cable into the connector on the monitor. Finally, connect the other end of the 
cable to the "Y" adapter. 



Setting Up the Amiga 2000 2-9 



Plugging In the Amiga 2000 



Before you plug in and turn on your Amiga 2000, make sure there's nothing 
covering the ventilation slots on the main unit: 



Ventilator 



E» 




Remember to turn the power off before inserting the connector. Plug the power 
cord into the main unit: 




Plug the other end of the power cord into a grounded outlet, and you're ready to 
start using your Amiga. Just turn on the on/off switch on the back of the main 
unit. 



See Chapter 8 for details on adding hardware peripherals like printers, extra disk 
drives, modems, etc., to your Amiga 2000. 

2- 1 Setting Up the Amiga 2000 



Chapter 3 



Getting Started 



A Note About the Mouse 3-3 

Using Disks 3-3 

Moving the Pointer 3-8 

Selecting Icons 3-10 

Dragging 3-12 

Using Menus 3-13 

Commands and Options 3-16 

Duplicating Your Disks Using a Menu 3-16 

Resetting the Amiga 3-19 



Getting Started 3-1 



In this chapter, you'll learn the basics of using your Amiga 2000, including: 

• how to use the mouse 

• using icons and menus 

• using disks 

When you're done, you'll be ready to start using the tools included on your 
Workbench disk that let you work with the Amiga. 

NOTE: Because of the variety of configurations available in the Amiga 2000 series, 
the screen displays shown in this manual may differ slightly from what shows on 
your Amiga 2000. This has no effect on system performance or procedures. 



A Note About the Mouse 

The descriptions in this chapter (and throughout the rest of this manual) assume 
you're using a mouse. There are, however, certain keys on the keyboard you can 
use in place of the mouse. To learn how, see the section in Appendix C entitled 
Using the Amiga Without a Mouse. 



Using Disks 



Start by getting the two microdisks, the Workbench disk and the BASIC disk that 
came with your Amiga. These disks contain important information used by the 
Amiga. In addition, have two blank microdisks ready. (You can get blank 
microdisks from your Amiga dealer.) You'll copy the information from the 
original disks onto these blank disks and keep the originals in a safe place. 

Your original Amiga disks may have protect tabs. These are small plastic tabs on 
the backs of the disks. If you find protect tabs on the original disks, slide each tab 
toward the edge of the disk until it clicks into place. When you do, you'll be able 
to see through a small hole in each disk: 



Getting Started 3-3 



Write-Protect Tab 





Write-Protect On 



By putting the protect tabs in this position, you prevent the information on the 
disks from being changed while they're in the Amiga. 

If you want to add information to a disk, make sure that the protect tab is toward 
the middle of the disk, so that it covers the hole. With the tab in this position, you 
can add new information to a disk: 



2,-A Getting Started 




Write-Enable On 



The On/Off switch is on the back of the Amiga 2000. To turn on the Amiga, 
press the switch and the power light on the Amiga will light up. 



Power Lighf 




A word of warning: 

Whenever you turn off the Amiga, always wait AT LEAST 30 
seconds before turning it on again to ensure that all data in memory 
has been reset. Shorter intervals may result in a "guru message", 
which can be reset by pressing the left mouse button. 



Getting Started 3-5 



Next, turn on the monitor attached to your Amiga. In a few moments, you'll see 
a picture of a hand holding a disk: 



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Assuming that you have already removed the cardboard (or plastic) disk 
protector (see page 2-5), this is your cue to insert the Workbench disk metal end 
in, label side up into the disk drive, the device that reads information from disks 
and adds information to them. Push in the disk until it clicks into place: 

Disk Drive (dfl) Disk Drive (dfO) 




3-6 Getting Started 



After you put in the disk, you'll hear sounds from the Amiga. These are the 
sounds the disk, drive makes as it gathers information. In less than a minute, the 
Amiga will get the information it needs with the help of the disk drive from the 
Workbench disk. Notice that while the disk drive is working, the disk drive light 
is on: 




Disk Drive Lights 

A word of warning: 

NEVER remove a disk when the disk drive light is on. 

The disk drive light tells you that the Amiga is using the disk. 

Taking a disk out too soon may make it impossible for the Amiga to finish an 
important task, such as reading the information from the Workbench disk. Even 
worse, taking a disk out too early may ruin the information on a disk. Always 
wait for the disk drive light to turn off before you remove a disk. 



Getting Started 3-7 



In a few moments, you'll see the Workbench: 




At the top is a title bar that identifies the Workbench. On the Workbench is an 
icon, a small picture that represents the Workbench disk. You'll learn more 
about icons later in this chapter. 



Moving the Pointer 



You use the Pointer, the small arrow on the display, to point to the things you 
want to work with. 




Pointer 



3-8 Getting Started 



Moving the mouse moves the Pointer. Without pressing either of the mouse 
buttons on top of the mouse, try rolling the mouse. Hold the mouse as shown 
below: 




To point, move the Pointer so that its tip is over the thing you want to point to: 




When you first use the mouse, don't worry if it feels a bit clumsy. Once you're 
familiar with it, you'll find that using the mouse is very quick and convenient. 

If you run out of room for your mouse before you get the Pointer where you want 
it, just lift the mouse and put it down where there's more room. Lifting the 
mouse doesn't move the Pointer. 

Getting Started 3-9 



The pointer doesn't have to be an arrow; you can design your own pointer as any 
shape you like, using the Preferences option. This is explained in Chapter 6, 
"Using Preferences." 

You can also move the pointer using the keyboard instead of a mouse. See 
Appendix C for details. 



Selecting Icons 

You use the Selection button, the left button on the mouse, to select icons and 
other features. Icons are the picture symbols on the screen. They can represent 
tools, projects, drawers or disks. When you want to use the item represented by 
the icon, you must select that item with the pointer. Try selecting the icon for the 
Workbench disk: 

First, point to the Workbench disk icon, then click twice (press and quickly 
release) on the Selection button (the left button on the mouse). 




This operation, known as double-clicking, "opens" the selected icon. 



3-10 Getting Started 



The icon for the Workbench disk is highlighted (i.e., shown in a different color) 
at the first press of the mouse button, to indicate that it's selected. 




There are times when you doubleclick on an icon, but must wait for the 
Workbench to finish an activity before you can continue. When this happens, the 
Pointer changes shape and becomes a Wait Pointer: 




Wait Pointer 



Getting Started 3-11 



When the Pointer returns to its original shape, you can continue working. 




If you no longer want an icon selected, point to a place on the Workbench that 
isn't occupied by an icon or gadget, then click the Selection button. 

You can also select an icon by using the keyboard. See Appendix C for details. 



Dragging 

You move icons, windows, and screens by dragging them. To drag an icon, you 
point to it, hold down the Selection button, and move the mouse. 




3-12 Getting Started 



A copy of the icon moves and is repositioned at the point where you release the 
Selection button. 




Using Menus 



For most tools, including the Workbench, there are menus that list choices you 
can make. To use menus, you use the Menu button, the right-hand button on the 
mouse. The best way to learn how menus work is to try one: 

• Select the icon for the Workbench disk if it isn't already selected. 

• Press the left mouse button only once. 

• Hold down the Menu button (the right button on the mouse). When you do, 
the Menu Bar appears. In the Menu Bar are titles of menus: 




Getting Started 3-13 



Without releasing the Menu button, point to the title Workbench in the 
Menu Bar. The Workbench menu appears: 




• While keeping the Menu button down, point to Open in the menu. Open is 
highlighted: 




• Choose Open by releasing the Menu button while Open is highlighted. 

By choosing the Open item from the Workbench menu, you open a window 
for the Workbench disk: 



3-14 Getting Started 



Workbench Window 





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In the window, you see icons that represent the contents of the Workbench disk. 
This operation involving the menu is comparable to selecting an icon by double- 
clicking. 

If you decide you don't want to choose a menu item, move the Pointer off the 
menu before releasing the Menu button. 

To browse through a tool's menus, just hold down the Menu button while 
moving the Pointer along the Menu Bar. Without choosing an item, you'll get to 
look at the menu items that are available. 

In some tools, not all menu items are available at all times. Menu items that you 
cannot choose appear as ghost items: 




Getting Started 3-15 



Commands and Options 

In menus, there are two kinds of items: commands and options. Commands are 
items that you choose to perform an action. One example of a command is the 
Open item in the Workbench menu. You chose Open to open a window. 

Options are choices that persist until you choose other, mutually exclusive 
options. Examples of options are the type styles available in the Amiga Notepad. 
(See Chapter 5 for a description of the Amiga Notepad.) Options you've chosen 
are indicated by check marks to the left of the menu items: 




Duplicating Your Disks Using a Menu 

It's important to make duplicates of your original disks and keep the originals in 
a safe place. You can use these duplicates, called working disks, for everyday 
use. Before you do anything else with the Workbench, follow these directions for 
duplicating disks: 



3-16 Getting Started 



Select the icon for the Workbench disk, then choose Duplicate from the 
Workbench menu: 




A requester asks you to put the disk you want to duplicate in drive dfO. 
(Drive dfO is the floppy disk drive in the main unit; if there are two internal 
3>/2" drives, dfO is the rightmost drive.) Since the Workbench disk is 
already in drive dfO, select Continue to go on. 



Requester 
Box 




Getting Started 3-17 



• Next you'll see a requester that asks you to insert the disk to receive the 
copy. Take out the Workbench disk, insert one of the blank disks, then 
select Continue. 

• Finally, there is a series of requesters asking you to exchange disks. 

(In these requesters, "volume" is another term for "disk.") Insert the disk 
each requester asks for, then select Continue. 

When you've finished copying the disk, remove the copy and label it using one 
of the self-adhesive disk labels packaged with most new disks. 

Two warnings: Copying a disk destroys any previous information stored on the 
disk that receives the copy. If, when you copy a disk, you insert the destination 
disk in place of the source disk, you will not get a message telling you that 
you've inserted the wrong disk. Be sure to insert the correct disk. 

You can copy other disks in the same way: insert the disk you want to copy, 
select the icon for the disk, choose Duplicate from the Workbench menu, then 
follow the instructions in the requesters. Be sure to label the copies when you're 
finished. 

If you have two or more disk drives (optional drives are available from your 
Amiga dealer), you eliminate the disk swapping involved in copying disks with a 
single drive. 

When you've made a copy of a disk, put the original in a safe place and use only 
the working disk. That way, if you lose or damage a working disk, you'll be able 
to make another copy from the original. 

To learn about proper care for your disks, see Chapter 8, "Caring for the 
Amiga." 



3-18 Getting Started 



Resetting the Amiga 

Before going on, you need to insert the newly copied Workbench disk, then reset 
the Workbench. To reset, make sure the disk drive light is off, hold down the 
CTRL key and both Amiga keys at the same time for at least half a second, then 
release the keys. When you reset the Workbench, you clear the Amiga's memory 
the electronic circuits the Amiga uses to store information then the Workbench 
reappears. You're back to where you were when you first inserted the Work- 
bench disk. 

Two warnings: 

NEVER reset the Workbench when a disk drive light on. Resetting when the 
light is on may damage the information on the disk. 

When you reset the Workbench, any work that has not been saved to disk is 

lost. When you begin using the tools on the Amiga, remember to save your work 
before you reset. 

Now that you're acquainted with the mouse, menus, and disk operations, you're 
ready to use the Workbench tools. Chapter 4 starts you working on Workbench 
projects, and Chapter 5 covers the many other things you can do with the 
Workbench. 



Getting Started 3-19 



Chapter 4 



Using the Workbench 



What Is the Workbench? 4-3 



What's on the Workbench? 4-3 
Icons 4-4 
Windows 4-4 
Screens 4-4 



- — Creating a Project 4-5 



Operations Involving Tools and Projects 4-9 
Opening Tools and Projects 4-9 
Duplicating Tools and Projects 4-10 
Renaming Tools and Projects 4-10 
Getting Information About Tools and Projects 4-11 
Discarding Tools and Projects 4-12 

Operations Involving Drawers 4-12 
Opening Drawers 4-13 
Moving Tools, Projects, and Drawers 4-13 
Duplicating Drawers 4-14 
Renaming Drawers 4-14 
Discarding Drawers 4-14 
Special Drawers: Disks and the Trashcan 4-15 



Using the Workbench 4-1 



Operations Involving Windows 4-15 
Using Gadgets 4-16 
Dragging Windows 4-17 
Sizing Windows 4-18 

Moving Windows in Front of Other Windows 4-19 
Pushing Windows Behind Other Windows 4-20 
Scrolling the Contents of a Window 4-20 
Closing Windows 4-24 
Disk Gauges 4-24 

Operations Involving Screens 4-25 
Dragging Screens 4-26 
Moving Screens in Front of Other Screens 4-27 
Pushing Screens Behind Other Screens 4-28 
The Memory Meter 4-29 

Operations Involving Requesters 4-29 
Responding to a Requester 4-30 
Alerts 4-31 

Operations Involving Disks 4-31 
Initializing Disks 4-31 
Duplicating Disks 4-31 
Copying Disks 4-31 

Moving a Tool, Project, or Drawer to a New Disk 4-32 
Renaming Disks 4-32 
RAM Disk 4-32 

Expansion Drawer 4-33 

Resetting the Workbench 4-33 

Other Workbench Operations 4-33 
Cleanup 4-34 
Last Error 4-34 
Redraw 4-34 
Snapshot 4-34 
Version 4-34 

Mouse Tricks 4-35 



4-2 Using the Workbench 



The Workbench is a tool you use to control the Amiga 2000. This chapter describes 
the Workbench and the tasks you perform with it. 



What Is the Workbench? 



The Workbench is: 

• a tool you use to control the Amiga. You open the Workbench by 
inserting a disk, called a Workbench disk, that contains the Work- 
bench tool. 

• an area of the display screen set aside for the Workbench. 



What's on the Workbench? 



When you open the Workbench disk, here are the things you see on the 
Workbench screen: 

Clock Tool Icon 



Workbench 
Screen 



se 1,2. j!533b \ ree~iie 




Drawer 
Icon 



Trashcan 
Icon 



Window 



Using the Workbench 4-3 



Icons 

Icons are small pictures that appear on the Workbench. They represent: 

• tools 

• projects 

• disks 

• drawers, places where you keep tools, projects, and other drawers 

• the Trashcan, which you use to discard tools, projects, and drawers 

Windows 

Windows let you see the contents of projects, drawers, disks, and the Trashcan. 
Each window has a Title Bar at the top to identify it. In addition, a window may 
have one or more gadgets that let you change what's being displayed or that let 
you communicate with a tool. Gadgets are described later in this chapter in the 
section "Renaming Tools and Projects." 

Screens 

On the Amiga, the way visual information is displayed can be different for 
different tools. To change the display, tools request different video attributes. 
These attributes include: 

• horizontal resolution, the number of pixels that appear on each line of 
the display 

• number of colors displayed in the screen 

• color palette, the colors that appear in the screen 

• interlace, which doubles the number of horizontal lines that appear in 
the screen 

4-4 Using the Workbench 



A screen is an area of the display with the same video attributes. Screens are 
always as wide as the display. Each screen contains one or more windows: 




Creating a Project 

You'll use most Amiga tools to create projects. Using the techniques described 
in the last section, you can use the Workbench to work with tools, projects, 
drawers, and disks. You move the pointer, doubleclick to select, and use menus 
as introduced in the last chapter. 

One example of a project is a note you write with the Notepad, a tool that is 
included on your Workbench disk. Notepad is reviewed later in the next chapter 
on Workbench tools, but to give you some experience with projects, let's use it 
now. All the Workbench operations are explained thoroughly following this 
example, but let's try creating a project just to get you started really using 
Workbench. 



Using the Workbench 4-5 



Here's how to write a note: 

• Select the Utilities drawer on the Workbench, then choose Open from the 
Workbench menu, or simply double-click on the Utilities drawer: 

• In the window that appears, you'll see the icon for the Notepad: 



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4-6 Using the Workbench 



• Open the Notepad by selecting its icon, then choosing Open from the 
Workbench menu, or by double-clicking on the Notepad icon. 

• In a few moments, a window for the Notepad appears: 




Using the Workbench 4-7 



Using the keyboard, type in your note: 




To save your note, choose Save As from the Project menu. (Because the Notepad 
window is selected, you'll see menus for the Notepad in place of the Workbench 
menus.) Select the box that appears to the right of the word "Name:", type in a 
name for your note (the name can be up to 25 characters long), press the Return 
key on the keyboard, then select the OK gadget. 

If you make a mistake in typing, don't worry. Just use the cursor keys to 
reposition the cursor next to the error. Then press the Backspace key to delete 
the character to the left, or the DELETE key to delete the character to the right. 
Then type the correct letters, and they are automatically inserted. 




4—8 Using the Workbench 



When you're done, choose Quit from the Project menu. The next time you open 
the Utilities drawer, you'll see a new icon. This is the icon for your note: 




If you want to get back your note, open it by pointing to its icon and double- 
clicking the Selection button. When you reopen your note, the Notepad is also 
reopened. You can then add to or change the note. 

Now that you're acquainted with the Workbench, menus, and projects, you're 
ready to use other Amiga tools. Take time now to become familiar with the 
aspects of how to operate Workbench. When you're done, you can read Chapter 
5 to learn the many other things you can do with the Workbench. 



Operations Involving Tools and Projects 



Opening Tools and Projects 

When you open a tool or project, you open a window that lets you see the 
contents of the project or lets you communicate with the tool. There are two ways 
to open a tool or project: 

• Select the icon for the tool or project, then choose Open from the 
Workbench menu. 

• Point to the icon, then double-click the Selection button. 



Using the Workbench 4—9 



Opening a project automatically opens the tool used to create it. 

On the Amiga, you can have more than one tool open at the same time. This 
ability is called multi-tasking, meaning the Amiga is able to perform several 
tasks at once. Note, however, that each new tool you open requires a certain 
amount of memory. Memory is the set of electronic circuits within the Amiga 
used to keep information. 

If, when you try to open an additional tool, there isn't sufficient memory for it, 
the Workbench gives you the message "Cannot open [name of the tool]. Error 
103" at the top of the screen. If this happens, try closing any unneeded tools or 
projects to obtain additional memory. 



Duplicating Tools and Projects 

Duplicating a tool or project means making an identical copy in the drawer in 
which the tool or project resides. To duplicate, select the icon for the tool or 
project, then choose Duplicate from the Workbench menu. 

The name of the new tool or project is "copy of" added to the name of the tool or 
project that was copied. For example, duplicating the Clock gives you a new tool 
named "copy of Clock." 



Renaming Tools and Projects 

To rename a tool or project, select its icon, then choose Rename from the 
Workbench menu. A message appears in the Title Bar and a gadget appears in 
the middle of the screen containing the name of the icon. 




4—10 Using the Workbench 



A gadget is a box Workbench gives you to enter information, to communicate 
with the Amiga. Type in a new name, and press the Return key. If you click the 
Menu button while the gadget is displayed, your input will not be accepted. To 
reselect the gadget so that you can type in the name, point anywhere within the 
gadget and click the Selection button. 

About String Gadgets. The gadget that appears is called a String Gadget. (The 
term string refers to a set of one or more characters.) As you use the Amiga, 
you'll find that String Gadgets appear in requesters when a tool needs informa- 
tion in the form of text. When you use String Gadgets, note that you can change 
the string that appears in the gadget. Press the DEL key to delete the characters at 
and to the right of the Text Cursor (the marker that appears in the gadget) . Press 
the Backspace key to delete characters to the left of the text cursor. You can erase 
what appears in the gadget by pressing the Amiga key and the X key at the same 
time. You can get back what was in the gadget before you made any changes by 
pressing the Amiga key and the Q key at the same time. 




Getting Information About Tools and Projects 

To get information about tools and projects, select the icon for the tool or project, 
then choose Info from the Workbench menu. The information includes the type 
(project, tool, drawer, or disk) of the object you've selected, as well as various 
measures of its size (note that some of these are only of interest to software 
developers and others who must deal with the inner workings of the Amiga). You 
can also change the status of the object by selecting one of the gadgets below the 
word STATUS. The normal setting is DELETABLE, which allows you to delete 
an object. Select NOT DELETABLE if you want to prevent an object from being 
deleted. 



Using the Workbench 4-1 1 



Discarding Tools and Projects 

To discard a tool or project, drag its icon over a Trashcan icon. When you do, the 
tool or project is kept in a special drawer maintained by the Trashcan. It remains 
in this drawer until you select the Trashcan icon, then choose Empty Trash from 
the Disk menu. If you haven't emptied the trash since you last put something in 
the Trashcan, you can retrieve what you discarded by opening the Trashcan in 
the same way you open a project, then dragging its icon to an open drawer 
somewhere on the Workbench. Note that when you discard something, you do 
not reclaim disk space until you choose Empty Trash. 




You can also discard a tool or project by selecting its icon, choosing Discard 
from the Workbench menu, then selecting "ok to discard" in the requester that 
appears. WARNING: When you choose Discard to discard a tool or project, 
you cannot get the tool or project back. 



Operations Involving Drawers 

Drawers are places where you can keep tools, projects, and other drawers. You 
can use drawers to keep order on the Workbench and to keep related items 
together. 



4-12 Using the Workbench 



Opening Drawers 

You open a drawer in the same way you open a tool or project: either point to the 
icon for the drawer and double-click the Selection button or select the icon for the 
drawer, then choose Open from the Workbench menu. Opening a drawer gives 
you a window in the Workbench screen. 




Moving Tools, Projects, and Drawers 



To move a tool, project, or another drawer into a drawer, open the drawer into 
which you want to put the tool, project, or drawer, then drag the icon into the 
drawer's window: 




Using the Workbench 4—13 



Another way to move a tool, project, or another drawer into a drawer is to drag 
the icon over the icon for the drawer into which you want to put it. 



Duplicating Drawers 

To duplicate a drawer, select the icon for the drawer, then choose Duplicate from 
the Workbench menu. A new drawer, whose name is "copy of" added to the 
name of the drawer that was duplicated, appears in the window. 

To create a new drawer, you duplicate another drawer. The quickest way is to 
duplicate the empty drawer that appears on the Workbench, then give the new 
drawer a new name. 



Renaming Drawers 

To rename a drawer, select the icon for the drawer, then choose Rename from the 
Workbench menu. A message then appears asking you for a new name. Select 
the window that appears, type in a name, then press the Return key. 



Discarding Drawers 

To discard a drawer, drag the icon for the drawer over the Trashcan icon. Putting 
a drawer in the Trashcan does not free disk space until you select the Trashcan 
icon, then choose Empty Trash from the Disk menu. 

You can also discard a drawer by selecting the icon for the drawer, choosing 
Discard from the Workbench menu, then selecting OK to Discard in the request- 
er that appears. WARNING: When you choose Discard to discard a drawer, 
you cannot get the drawer back. 



4-14 Using the Workbench 



Special Drawers: Disks and the Trashcan 

Disks and the Trashcan are special kinds of drawers. Disks differ from other 
drawers in these ways: 

• You cannot discard a disk by dragging its icon over the Trashcan 
icon. 

• You cannot move a disk into another drawer. 
The Trashcan differs from other drawers in these ways: 

• You cannot move the Trashcan into another drawer. 

• You cannot duplicate the Trashcan. 

• You cannot discard the Trashcan. 

• You can discard all tools, projects, and drawers in the Trashcan by 
selecting the Trashcan icon, then choosing Empty Trash from the 
Disk menu. 



Operations Involving Windows 

When you open a tool, project, drawer, disk, or the Trashcan, a window appears 
on the Workbench. This newly opened window appears in front of any other 
windows with which it overlaps. 

Windows appear within screens. They cannot be moved from one screen to 
another. While all the windows 1n a screen can display information, only one 
window can accept information from you at a time. This window is called the 
selected window. 

To select a window, point anywhere within the window and click the Selection 
button. 



Using the Workbench 4-15 



Using Gadgets 



You change the size of a window, change what's displayed in the window, move 
the window, and do other things with windows with the help of gadgets . You 
also use gadgets to communicate with tools. Here are some common gadgets 
found in windows: 



Close Gadget 



Drag Bar 



Back Gadget 



Front Gadget 




Scroll Bar 



Sizing Gadget 



Windows can contain all, some, or none of these gadgets. In addition, windows 
can contain other gadgets needed for a particular tool. 

Like menu items, gadgets in a window can appear as ghost gadgets. Here, a 
ghost Drag Bar indicates that the window is not selected: 




4—16 Using the Workbench 



Dragging Windows 

You drag a window by pointing anywhere in the window's Title Bar that is not 
occupied by other gadgets (the Drag Bar), holding down the Selection button, 
and moving the mouse: 





Using the Workbench 4-17 



Sizing Windows 



To change the size of a window, you drag its Sizing Gadget: 





Note that some windows have a maximum size that is smaller than the screen in 
which they reside. 



4-18 Using the Workbench 



Moving Windows in Front of Other Windows 

When windows overlap, one window appears in front of the others. To move a 
window in front of other windows, select the Front Gadget: 





Using the Workbench 4-19 



Pushing Windows Behind Other Windows 

To move a window behind other windows with which it overlaps, select the Back 
Gadget: 





Scrolling the Contents of a Window 

For many windows, you can't display everything that can appear within the 
window at once. Because of this, windows often have Scroll Bars that let you 
move what appears in the window: 



4-20 



Usins the Workbench 



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You can move half a window at a time by selecting a Scroll Arrow at either end 
of the Scroll Bar: 





Using the Workbench 4-21 



Pressing the Shift Key while selecting a Scroll Arrow moves the window one 
pixel. 

Scroll Boxes change size according to how much can appear in a window. If the 
window is as wide as what can appear, the Scroll Box in the horizontal Scroll Bar 
fills the entire space between the Scroll Arrows: 




If, for example, only half of what can appear is within the window, the Scroll 
Box fills only half the space between the Scroll Arrows. The position of the 
Scroll Box indicates what part you're seeing: 




4-22 Using the Workbench 



To move what appears in a window, you can drag the Scroll Box: 



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Selecting the space to either side of the Scroll Box causes the box and the 
window to move in that direction. 



Using the Workbench 4-23 



Closing Windows 



To close a window, select the Close Gadget: 




You can also close a window for a drawer by selecting its icon, then choosing 
Close from the Workbench menu. 



Disk Gauges 

When you open a disk, the window that appears has a disk gauge along its left 
edge: 



Disk Gauge 




4-24 Using the Workbench 



This gauge shows how full the disk is. The closer the colored center bar is to the 
top, the less free storage space there is on the disk. If the disk is completely full, 
the colored bar fills the entire space between the "E" and "F" marks. 

To free disk space, move tools, projects, or drawers to the Trashcan, select the 
Trashcan icon, then choose Empty Trash from the Disk menu. 



Operations Involving Screens 

As noted earlier, screens are areas of the display with different video attributes. 
When a window is opened for a tool, it appears in a screen whose video attributes 
are appropriate for it. 

Screens are always as wide as the diplay, and are no larger than the display. 
Although the height of a screen is fixed, part of a screen can be off the display: 



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Screens, like windows, can contain gadgets. Note that a window within the 
screen can cover the screen's gadgets. If this happens, you must drag or resize 
the window to reveal the gadgets underneath. 



Using the Workbench 4-25 



Dragging Screens 

To drag a screen, point anywhere in the screen's Title Bar that is not occupied by 
other gadgets (the screen's Drag Bar), hold down the Selection button, then 
move the mouse: 




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You can drag a screen down so that part of it is off the bottom of the display. 
Note that you cannot drag a screen up so that the bottom of the screen is above 
the bottom of the display. 

If a screen occupies less than the entire display area, when you drag it down the 
monitor will show all of the screen that will fit on the display. However, you will 
not be able to move the pointer to any icons that are below the bottom of the 
original screen position. 



4-26 



Using the Workbench 



Moving Screens in Front of Other Screens 

To move a screen in front of other, overlapping screens, select the screen's Front 
Gadget: 




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For the Workbench screen, there is a selection shortcut you can use to move it to 
the front: while holding down the left Amiga key, press the N key. 



Using the Workbench 4-27 



Pushing Screens Behind Other Screens 



To move a screen behind other, overlapping screens, select the screen's Back 
Gadget: 





For the Workbench screen, there is a selection shortcut you can use to push it to 
the back: while holding down the left Amiga key, press the M key. 



4-28 Using the Workbench 



The Memory Meter 



At the top of the Workbench screen is a memory meter: 




Memory Meter 



The meter shows the amount of free RAM (random-access memory) available to 
you. 



Operations Involving Requesters 

A requester is an area within a window that a tool uses to communicate with you. 
Requesters are automatically selected when they appear. 

A system requester is a requester that appears when AmigaDOS or another 
program needs a response from you. An example is a requester that asks you to 
insert a disk. 

A system requester can appear in any screen. If the screen containing a system 
requester is obscured by another screen, the screen containing the requester is 
brought to the front; this ensures that the requester is visible. 

When you've replied to the requester, you can move the screen to the back by 
selecting the screen's Back gadget (at the upper right of the screen). If the 
requester appears in the Workbench screen, you can also move the screen back 
by holding down the left Amiga key while you press the M key. 



Using the Workbench 4-29 



Here is an example of a requester: 



Responding to a Requester 

To respond to a requester, use the gadget or gadgets it provides. Among the 
gadgets, there are always one or more exit gadgets that you select to close the 
requester. In many requesters, the "OK" gadget is an exit gadget. Many 
requesters also have a "Cancel" gadget you select if for any reason you don't 
want to perform an action. 

Autorequest requesters contain only two gadgets: a Retry or Continue gadget and 
a Cancel gadget. Select by pointing to the gadget and clicking on the Selection 
button in the usual way. 

You can also use the keyboard to select; hold down the left Amiga key while 
pressing the V key to select Resume or Continue. To select Cancel, hold down 
the left Amiga key and, with the key still down, press the B key. 

Some requesters use string gadgets that accept text. For example, the gadget that 
appears when you choose Rename from the Workbench menu is a string gadget. 
String gadgets contain a cursor you can move with the cursor keys or the pointer 
and Selection button. If you click the Menu button outside the gadget, the cursor 
goes away and the gadget is no longer selected. To select the gadget again, move 
the pointer to anywhere inside the gadget and press the Selection button. 



4—30 Using the Workbench 



Alerts 



Alerts are messages the Amiga provides if there is something seriously wrong 
with your Amiga or with the tools you're using. Alerts are hard to ignore; they 
appear in boxes with flashing red borders. 

At the top of alerts are the words "Software Failure" or "Not enough memory." 
There will also be instructions on how to continue. 



Operations Involving Disks 



Initializing Disks 

To use a new disk with the Amiga, it must be initialized. If you copy a disk, the 
new disk is initialized as it receives the copy. To initialize a disk without making 
a copy, insert the disk in a disk drive, select the disk icon that appears on the 
Workbench, then choose Initialize from the Disk menu. The disk drive light will 
come on until the initialization is completed. 



Duplicating Disks 

To duplicate a disk, select the icon for the disk, then choose Duplicate from the 
Workbench menu. Note that when you choose Duplicate, the Amiga makes use 
of only one disk drive even if there are two or more drives. 



Copying Disks 

In the last chapter, you saw how to copy disks using menus. The quick way to 
copy a disk is to drag its icon over the icon for a disk that will receive the copy. If 
you have more than one disk drive, a requester asks you to insert the disk you 
want to copy (the source disk) into one of the drives, and the disk to receive the 
copy (the destination disk) into another. (Note that "drive dfO" referred to in the 
requester is the rightmost internal drive. "Drive df 1 " is the first additional 
drive.) 

Using the Workbench 4-3 1 



Two warnings: 

Copying a disk destroys any previous information stored on the disk that 
receives the copy. 

If, when you copy a disk, you insert the destination disk in place of the 
source disk, you will not get a message telling you that you've inserted the 
wrong disk. Be sure to insert the correct disk. 



Moving a Tool, Project, or Drawer to a New Disk 

To move a copy of a tool, project, or drawer to a new disk, open the disk you 
want to move it to, then drag the icon into the window for the disk. 



Renaming Disks 

To rename a disk, select the icon for the disk, then choose Rename from the 
Workbench menu. A message then appears asking you for a new name. Select 
the window that appears, type in a name, then press the RETURN key. 



RAM Disk 



A RAM disk is an area of the Amiga's random access memory used for operations 
that normally involve disks. When you use the CLI (the Command Line Inter- 
face, described in Chapter 7) to create a RAM disk, or when a program you are 
using creates a RAM disk for you, an icon for the RAM disk appears on the 
Workbench. 

Once an icon for a RAM disk appears on the Workbench, it remains there until 
you reset or turn off your Amiga. You cannot create a RAM disk directly from 
the Workbench. See Chapter 7 on the CLI for a brief discussion on how to create 
a RAM disk, and see the AmigaDOS Manual published by Bantam Books for a 
more detailed explanation. 



4-32 Using the Workbench 



— Expansion Drawer 

The Workbench contains an Expansion drawer into which you can place icons 
for expansion devices (such as a hard disk) that you may add to your Amiga 
system. To install these icons, first open the Expansion drawer. Then simply 
drag the icon that represents the driver file for the device into the Expansion 
drawer. The driver file and its icon are supplied by the manufacturer of the 
device. 



Resetting the Workbench 

Resetting the Workbench means to set it up again. When you do, you start again 
with only the Workbench, and the Amiga's memory is cleared. If a tool 
malfunctions, you may be forced to reset before you can resume work. To reset 
the Workbench, hold down the CTRL key and both Amiga keys at the same time 
for at least half a second, then release the keys. 

WARNING: Always make sure the disk drive lights are off before resetting 
the Workbench. 

Other Workbench Operations 

There are five other tasks you perform on the Workbench. You choose each task 
(straightening up the Workbench icons, displaying the last error message, re- 
drawing the display, saving the positions of icons and windows, and showing the 
internal version number of the Workbench) from the Special menu for the 
Workbench. 



Using the Workbench 4-33 



Cleanup 

If a drawer is open and the icon you selected to open the drawer is currently 
selected, choosing Cleanup straightens up icons in the drawer. 



Last Error 

Choosing Last Error from the Special menu displays the last message that 
appeared in the Title Bar for the Workbench. Messages that appear in the Title 
Bar normally disappear as soon as you select something on the Workbench. (For 
explanations of error numbers that appear in the Title Bar, see the list of 
AmigaDOS error messages in Appendix B.) 



Redraw 

Choosing Redraw redraws some or all of what appears in the Workbench screen. 
Should a tool malfunction and disturb what appears in the Workbench screen, 
choosing Redraw may restore the screen. 



Snapshot 

Choosing Snapshot saves on disk the positions of currently selected icons. It 
also saves the sizes and the positions of windows that appear when you open any 
of the disk or drawer icons that are selected. (Note, however, that the positions of 
unselected icons within those windows are not saved.) Of course, to save this 
information on disk, the write-protect tab on the diskette must be "covered" to 
make the disk write-enabled. 

You can take a snapshot of more than one icon at a time by using Extended 
Selection, which is explained on the next page. 



4-34 Using the Workbench 



Version 



Choose Version to display the internal version number of the Workbench in the 
Workbench Title Bar. This version number is important only for software 
developers and support personnel. 



Mouse Tricks 



This section describes a few helpful techniques of mouse manipulation that may 
save you time once you get used to using Workbench. 

Extended Selection is a technique for selecting more than one icon in the same 
operation. To use it, hold down the Shift key while you select icons. Release the 
Shift key when you're done selecting: 




You may use Extended selection to move several icons as a group, retaining their 
relative positions. To do this, hold down the Shift key, move to the icons you 
wish to select, and press the Selection button. 

When you select the final icon to be moved, do not release the Selection button. 
Instead, release the Shift key. Now, while still holding down the Selection 
button, move the group of icons to the new location. 

Now release the Selection button. 



Using the Workbench 4-35 



When you use extended selection for Cleanup or Snapshot, the entire group of 
icons you selected are affected. 

Multiple Choice is a technique for choosing more than one menu item in the same 
operation. To use it, hold down the Menu button, then click the Selection button 
with the Pointer over each of the items you want to choose. 

When you're done choosing, release the Menu button. 



4-36 Using the Workbench 



Chapter 5 



_ Workbench Tools 



The Clock 5-3 

Setting the Time 5-3 

Opening the Clock 5-3 

Using the Clock Menus 5-4 

Changing the Clock from Analog lo Digital 5-4 

Changing the Size and Position of the Clock 5-5 

Changing from a 12- to a 24-Hour Clock 5-5 

Displaying the Seconds 5-6 

Setting the Alarm 5-7 

Closing the Clock 5-8 

The Notepad 5-8 

Opening the Notepad 5-8 

Entering Text 5-9 

Moving the Text Cursor 5-10 

Tabbing 5-10 

Changing the Size of the Notepad Window 5-11 

Moving through the Text 5-11 

Moving from Page to Page 5-12 

The Notepad Menus 5-12 

The Project Menu 5-12 

The Edit Menu 5-16 

The Font Menu 5-22 

The Style Menu 5-24 

The Formal Menu 5-25 

Menu Shortcuts 5-26 
Changing the Notepad Default Values 5-27 

Changing the Notepad Window Default Position 5-27 

Changing the Notepad Default Font 5-29 



Workbench Tools 5-1 



Changing the Default Font of a Note 5-29 
Changing the Default Print Type 5-29 
Changing the Default to Form-Feed 5-29 
Specifying the Global Font Default 5-30 
Turning off the Word Wrap Default 5-30 

The Calculator 5-30 

Opening the Calculator 5-31 

The Calculator Keys 5-31 

Closing the Calculator 5-32 

The Icon Editor 5-33 

Opening the Icon Editor 5-33 

Loading an Icon 5-34 

Selecting Additional Icons 5-36 

Changing an Icon 5-37 

Changing an Icon's Colors 5-37 

Filling Areas 5-38 

Adding Text to an Icon 5-39 

Using the Undo Feature 5-42 

Working with Frames 5-42 

Copying a Frame 5-42 

Moving the Image within a Frame 5-43 

Exchanging Frames 5-44 

Merging Frames 5-44 

Highlighting an Icon 5-45 

Specifying the Border Width 5-46 

Saving an Icon 5-46 

Stopping the Icon Editor 5-49 

The Say Speech Synthesizer 5-49 

Graphic Dump 5-50 

SetMap 5-51 



5-2 Workbench Tools 



The Workbench disk contains several tools, including: the Clock, the Notepad, the 
Calculator, the Icon Editor, the Say speech synthesizer, the Graphic Dump, and the 
SetMap keyboard selector. These tools are described in this chapter. Icons for these 
tools are either displayed directly on the Workbench screen, or are located in the 
Utilities or System drawers on the Workbench. 

In addition, the Demos drawer on the Workbench contains demonstrations that 
show the graphics abilities of the Amiga. To start a demonstration, select one of the 
icons in the Demos drawer, then choose Open from the Workbench menu. To stop a 
demo, select the Close Gadget in the upper left-hand corner of the demonstration 's 
window. 

The Clock 



The Clock tool lets you show the current time. In addition, you can use the Clock 
as an alarm. 



Setting the Time 

To set the time for the Clock, use the Preferences tool. (To learn about Prefer- 
ences, see Chapter 6.) 

Opening the Clock 

To open the Clock, double-click on the Clock icon in the Workbench disk 
drawer. When you do, an analog clock with a second hand appears in a window. 




Workbench Tools 5-3 



Using the Clock Menus 

To choose from the menus described below, you must first select the window in 
which the Clock appears. 



Changing the Clock from Analog to Digital 

Choose the type of clock you want (either analog or digital) from the Type menu. 
The type currently chosen is indicated by a check mark. 





5-4 Workbench Tools 



Changing the Size and Position of the Clock 

To change the size of an analog clock, drag the Sizing Gadget at the lower right- 
hand corner of the window. (You cannot change the size of a digital clock's 
window.) 




To move the Clock to a new location, drag the window by its Drag Bar. 




Changing from a 12- to a 24-Hour Clock 

You can display either a 12-hour or 24-hour clock by choosing J 2 Hour or 24 
Hour from the Mode menu. The current setting is indicated by a check mark. 



Workbench Tools 



5-5 



Displaying the Seconds 

If you don't want to display the second hand on an analog clock or the digits for 
the seconds on a digital clock, select the Seconds gadget in the lower left corner 
of the Clock window. Selecting the Seconds gadget again restores the second 
hand or the seconds digits. 





5-6 



Workbench Tools 



Setting the Alarm 

The items in the Alarm menu let you use the Clock as an alarm clock. The 
"alarm" is a brief flash on the display (the same flash that appears when an error 
occurs) accompanied by an equally brief "beep" sound if your Amiga is 
attached to audio equipment. The window for the clock appears in front of all 
other Workbench windows. To set the alarm, choose Set. In the requester that 
appears, the time is shown using either a 24-hour clock or a 12-hour clock with 
"AM" or "PM" indicated. To change the hour setting, point to the digits for the 
hours, click the Selection button, then select either the up arrow (to move the 
time ahead) or the down arrow (to move the time back). To change the setting for 
minutes, point to the digits for the minutes, click the Selection button, then select 
either the up or down arrow. Selecting AM or PM switches the setting. When the 
time is set correctly, select USE. If, instead, you want to restore the previous 
alarm setting, select CANCEL. 




To turn on the alarm clock, choose Alarm On from the Alarm menu. To turn it 
off, choose Alarm Off. 

NOTE: If you close the Clock, the alarm is no longer set. 



Workbench Tools 



5-7 



Closing the Clock 

To close the Clock, select the Close gadget in the upper right-hand corner of the 
window. 




The Notepad 

With the Notepad tool, you can keep notes or create short documents. You can 
find the Notepad in the Utilities drawer on the Workbench disk. 



Opening the Notepad 

You can open the Notepad by double-clicking on its icon. When you do, a 
window for the Notepad appears, and the Notepad fonts are loaded. The Notepad 
is ready to accept text when its window changes color. 



5-8 Workbench Tools 




To open the Notepad without loading fonts from the disk, select the Notepad 
icon, chose Info from the Workbench menu, and select the Tool Types String 
Window. Type "FLAGS = nofonts", press the Return key, and select the Save 
gadget. 

If you open the Notepad without loading fonts from disk, you can choose the 
Read Fonts item in the Project menu to read the fonts into memory. 



Entering Text 

To enter text, select the Notepad window (if it isn't already selected), then type 
your note. The characters you type appear to the left of the Text Cursor (the 
vertical bar that appears in the window). As you add characters, any characters to 
the right of the Text Cursor move to the right or, if they're at the right edge of the 
window, down a line. (To see how this works, try adding characters.) 




Workbench Tools 



5-9 



When you're typing and you reach the bottom of the window, the contents of the 
window are scrolled upward. 

There is a limit to the number of lines you can include in a Notepad note. This 
varies, depending on the size of the fonts you use. (With the plain, 9-point Topaz 
font, which is the default font for Notepad, you can enter 163 lines.) When you 
reach the limit, characters you type no longer appear in the Notepad window. 



Moving the Text Cursor 

To move the Text Cursor, point to a place within your note, then click the 
Selection button. (Note that you cannot move the Text Cursor to a point in the 
window beyond where you've entered characters.) You can also move the Text 
Cursor by pressing the cursor keys. Note that when you press the up or down 
cursor key and you reach the top or bottom of the window, the contents of the 
window are scrolled. 

You can move to the top or bottom of the current Notepad page by holding down 
the Shift key while pressing the Up cursor key to go to the top of the current page 
or the Down cursor key to go to the bottom of the page. 

Holding down the Shift key while you press the Left cursor key moves the Text 
cursor to the beginning of the current line, while the Right cursor key moves you 
to the end of the line. 



Tabbing 

The notepad contains predefined tab stops at eight-column intervals, i.e. the first 
tab is in column 8, the second in 16, etc. Press the TAB key to move to the next 
tab stop to the right of the cursor position. 



5-10 Workbench Tools 



Changing the Size of the Notepad Window 

You can change the size of the Notepad window by dragging the Sizing Gadget 
at the lower right. When you do, your note is automatically reformatted. 





Moving through the text 

You can move through the text of a note a line at a time using the Scroll Gadgets 
at the right of the Notepad window. The Up Scroll Gadget is the arrow-shaped 
gadget immediately below the Previous Page Gadget. Selecting it moves the text 
in the window up one line. The Down Scroll Gadget immediately above the 
sizing gadget moves the text in the window down one line. 



Workbench Tools 



5-11 



Moving from Page to Page 

There are two additional gadgets in the Notepad window. The gadget at the lower 
left of the window is the Next Page Gadget. Select this gadget to display the next 
page of your note. The gadget at the upper right is the Previous Page Gadget. 
Select this gadget to display the previous page of your note. When a note is 
displayed, the page number of the current page appears in the Page Gadget. 



The Notepad Menus 

The Notepad has five menus: Project, Edit, Font, Style and Format. These are 
described below. 



The Project Menu 




New 

Choose New to start a new note. 

Open 



Choose Open to open a note you previously saved. When you do, a requester 
appears. Select the gadget to the right of "Name:" and then change the name, if 
one appears, to make it the name you want. 



5-12 



Workbench Tools 



To change what appears in the gadget, press the Del key to delete the characters 
at and to the right of the Text Cursor. Press the Backspace key to delete 
characters to the left of the cursor. You can use the left and right cursor keys to 
move the cursor. You can erase what you've typed in the gadget by pressing the 
Amiga key and the X key at the same time. You can get back what was in the 
gadget before you started by pressing the Amiga key and the Q key at the same 
time. 

When you're done, press the Return key, then select the OK Gadget. The note 
whose name you type replaces the current note. 

Save 

Choose Save to save the current note. If you haven't already saved your note, a 
requester appears and lets you give it a name. Type a name, press the Return key, 
then select the OK Gadget. 




Workbench Tools 



5-13 



If you save a project that you have changed with the Notepad and you do not 
specify an AmigaDOS directory name, the project is saved in the same drawer as 
the Notepad, 




Save As 

Choose Save As to save the current note under a new name. A requester appears 
containing the previous name of the project. 

To change what appears in the gadget, press the Del key to delete the characters 
at and to the right of the Text Cursor. Press the Backspace key to delete 
characters to the left of the cursor. You can use the left and right cursor keys to 
move the cursor. You can erase what you've typed in the gadget by pressing the 
Amiga key and the X key at the same time. You can get back what was in the 
gadget before you started by pressing the Amiga key and the Q key at the same 
time. 

When you're done, press the Return key, then select the OK gadget. 

Note that when choosing either Save or Save As, your note is saved in the drawer 
whose window was selected when you opened the Notepad. 



5-14 



Workbench Tools 



Print 

To print your note, you choose one of the items from the Print submenu. (To 
choose from the submenu, point to Print, then, with the Menu button still held 
down, move the Pointer to the right, point to one of the options explained below 
then release the Menu button.) 




Choosing the Auto-size option prints an image that is approximately the same 
size as the image on the display. By choosing the Small option, you print an 
image whose width is one-quarter the width of the printer paper. (Use the 
Preferences tool to specify the width of the paper you're printing on. However, 
note that specifying different dimensions for the paper affects only notes printed 
when Draft option is chosen. The Draft option is described below.) By choosing 
the Medium option, you print an image whose width is one-half the width of the 
printer paper. By choosing the Large option, you print an image whose width is 
the full width of the printer paper. 

If the Graphic option in the Print As submenu is chosen (see below), you print, 
for each page, a picture of what appears in the Notepad window. If the Draft 
option in the Print As submenu is chosen, you print plain text; different type 
sizes, styles, and fonts are not displayed. 

Print As 

From the submenu, choose Graphic if you want to print a pixel-by-pixel repre- 
sentation of the window in which your note appears. (If you have a color printer, 
you can print the note in color.) Choose Draft if you want to print only the text of 
the note. 



Workbench Tools 5-15 



If your note covers more than one page, you may wish to have a blank space at 
the top of each page. To add blank lines, select form-feeds from the Print As 
submenu. 

Read Fonts 

If you open the Notepad without reading fonts at that time (see above), select this 
option when you wish to read in the font library. 

Quit 

Choose Quit when you're done and want to close the Notepad. 



The Edit Menu 



Cancel 

If you have selected some text to cut or copy and make an error or change your 
mind, select Cancel. Similarly, this option can be used to terminate a find or 
replace (see below). 

Cut 

This is used to select text and put it on the Clipboard (a special "holding area" 
for text you want to manipulate) so that you can delete it (cut), or remove it from 
one location and insert it at another location (cut and paste). To cut, first point to 
the start of the text you want to cut and double-click the Selection button; then 
point to the end of the section of text and double-click the Selection button 
again. The selected text is now highlighted. To remove the highlighted text and 
place it on the Clipboard, choose Cut from the Edit menu. Text stays "held" on 
the clipboard until you cut or copy new text. 



5-16 Workbench Tools 





You can also select text to cut by positioning the Text Cursor at the beginning of 
the text, choosing Mark Place from the Edit Menu, moving to the end of the text, 
then choosing Mark Place again. 

Each time you cut or copy text, the text replaces the previous contents of the 
Clipboard. 

Paste 

To paste text from the Clipboard into a note, point to the place in your note where 
you want the text to appear; click the Selection button to reposition the Text 
Cursor, then choose Paste from the Edit menu. Your text is inserted at the new 
location. 



Workbench Tools 5-17 



Copy 

Copy is used to duplicate text from one part of a note at another location. Select 
the text in the same manner as you would for Cut (point to the beginning and end 
of the section, double-clicking on the Selection button each time to indicate the 
position, or use Mark Place from the menu). Then choose Copy from the Edit 
menu. Position the Text Cursor at the new location and choose Paste. The text is 
duplicated. 





Each time you cut or copy text, it replaces the previous contents of the Clip- 
board. 



5-18 Workbench Tools 



Mark Place 

You can select the beginning or end of the text to be cut or copied by positioning 
the Text Cursor and choosing Mark Place. 



Find 



This is used to search for the occurrence of a character or group of characters in 
the note. Choose Find from the menu, and in the requester that appears, type in 
the text you want to search for, followed by the Return key. Now select the Next 
gadget to find the occurence following the Text Cursor position or Prev (for 
previous) to find the nearest occurrence before the Text Cursor position. 





Workbench Tools 5-19 



To automatically replace the character or group of characters with something 
else, select the Repl (replace) gadget, type in the new text and press the Return 
key before selecting Next or Prev. Then select the Replace option from the 
menu. 

Find Next 

When you have located an occurrence of the selected characters using the Find 
option above, to find the Next occurrence following, select the Find Next option 
from the Menu. 

Find Prev 

Once the occurrence of a character or group of characters has been located using 
the Find command, you can find the previous occurrence by selecting Find Prev 
from the menu. 

Replace 

When an occurrence of selected characters has been found, to change it to a new 
character or group of characters, select Replace. 




5-20 



Workbench Tools 



Whatever was typed into the Replace gadget in the Find requester now replaces 
the indicated character(s). If the Replace gadget is empty, the indicated charac- 
ters) are simply removed. 



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Workbench Tools 5-21 



The Font Menu 



From the Font menu, you can choose the typeface and type size for your note. 
The names of the seven different typefaces (Topaz, Ruby, Diamond, Opal, 
Emerald, Garnet, and Sapphire) are shown when you open the menu. The 
available type sizes for each typeface are shown in submenus. To choose from 
the Font menu, point to a name of a typeface; with the Menu button still held 
down, move the Pointer to the right into the submenu that appears, point to a type 
size, then release the Menu button. 





5-22 Workbench Tools 



To see the available typefaces and type sizes, type in a note, then select each of 
the choices. The currently chosen typeface is shown with a check mark to the left 
of the menu item. In addition, the currently chosen type size is shown with a 
check mark if there is more than one size for the currently chosen typeface. 




Note that the currently chosen typeface and type size apply to the entire note. 

When you choose a new typeface and type size, a previous type size you chose 
for a different typeface may still have a check mark to the left of it. If this is the 
case and you attempt to choose the previous typeface again, nothing may 
happen. If this should occur, choose another type size for the previous face, then 
choose the size you want. 



Workbench Tools 5-23 



The Style Menu 

From this menu, you can choose either standard (Plain) characters for your note, 
or change the type style by choosing Italic, Bold, Underlined, or any combina- 
tion of the three. At any point in your note, you can choose a new type style; this 
sets a marker in your note and all the characters from this marker to the next (or 
to the end of the file, if there are no other markers) are changed to the new style. 
Try the different choices and watch how your note changes. 




Note that when you choose Italic, Bold, or Underline, your choice stays in effect 
until you choose Plain. 

There are command-key shortcuts for each of the items in this menu: press the 
right Amiga key and the P key at the same time to choose Plain; the right Amiga 
key and the I key to choose Italic; the right Amiga key and the B key to choose 
Bold; the right Amiga key and the U key to choose Underline. As a reminder, the 
shortcut for each item is shown in the menu to the right of the item. 



5-24 Workbench Tools 



The Format Menu 



Paper Color 



Choose Paper Color to change the background color for your note. You then 
choose a color from the four shown in the submenu (see the description of the 
Font menu above to learn how to choose from a submenu). The currently chosen 
color is indicated by a check mark. 




Pen Color 

Choose Pen Color to change the color of the characters in your note. 

You then choose a color from the four shown in the submenu (see the description 

of the Font menu above to learn how to choose from a submenu). 

The currently chosen color is indicated by a check mark. 

Be sure that the pen color is different from the paper color; if you don't, you 
won't be able to read your note. 



Workbench Tools 5-25 



Word Wrap 

This option, which is automatically selected when the Notepad is opened, ends 
each line of text at the end of a word. A check to the left of the Word wrap menu 
item indicates that the option is chosen. To turn off the Word wrap feature, 
choose the Word wrap item and to turn it back on, choose it again. 

Global Font 

This item determines whether your note contains a single font or a variety of 
fonts. It is automatically selected when Notepad is opened and there will be one 
font throughout your note. To change this so that you can use different fonts in 
different parts of your note, select the Global font option from the Format menu. 
The check mark no longer appears next to the option. To restore the Global fonts, 
choose the item again. 

Remove Font 

When a note has been created using more than one font, you can make the entire 
note appear in the same font by choosing Remove Font. 

Remove Styles 

You can remove all style changes (to and from italic, bold, underline, or plain 
text) in a note by choosing Remove styles from the Format menu. 



Menu Shortcuts 

Several of the menu options can be selected with a combination of keystrokes 
rather than using the pointer. These are shown to the right of the menu items. To 
use these short cuts, hold down the right Amiga key, then with the key still held 
down, press the other key shown. 

For reference, the other keys are listed below. 






Open 


s 


Save 


Q 


Cancel 


X 


Cut 


& 


Paste 


c 


Copy 



5-26 Workbench Tools 



M 


Mark Place 


F 


Find 


+ 


Find Next 


- 


Find Previous 


R 


Replace 


P 


Plain 


I 


Italic 


B 


Bold 


U 


Underline 



In addition, CTRL L moves you to the next page of your note, just as if you had 
selected the Next Page Gadget. (To enter a CTRL L character, hold down the 
CTRL key on the keyboard while you press the L key, then release both keys.) 



Changing the Notepad Default Values 

The default values of Notepad settings, such as window position, window size, 
font, print type, form feed, word wrap, etc., can be changed to suit your 
requirements. The procedures are explained below. 

Changing the Notepad Window Default Position 

You can specify the size and position where the Notepad window will appear 
whenever you open it. Select the icon for the Notepad, choose Info from the 
Workbench menu, and select the Add gadget. Type "WINDOW = " followed 
by: 

• a three-digit number specifying the number of pixels from the left 
edge of the Workbench screen to the left edge of the window, 

• a comma, 

• a three-digit number specifying the number of pixels from the top 
edge of the Workbench screen to the top edge of the window, 

• a comma, 

• a three-digit number specifying the width of the window in pixels, 



Workbench Tools 5-27 



• a comma, 

• a three-digit number specifying the height of the window in pixels. 

• Here's an example: 
WINDOW = 100,070,050,090 





5-28 



Workbench Tools 



When you have completed your entry, press the Return key and select the Save 
gadget at the lower left of the requester. If the Notepad cannot create the window 
you have specified, it will ignore your request and continue to display the 
window in the previous position. 

You can specify the position and size of the window for a note you have saved by 
selecting the icon for that note and then following the procedure described above. 

Changing the Notepad Default Font 

When the Notepad is selected so that the fonts are automatically loaded, the 
normal default font (the font in which you will type if you do not select anything 
else) is 9-point Topaz. You may change this default font by using the procedure 
outlined here. Select the Notepad icon, choose Info from the Workbench menu, 
and select the Add Gadget. Type "FONT= " followed by the name of the font 
(as shown in the Notepad's Font menu), a period and a number for the font size 
(e.g. FONT = emerald. 20). 

Then press the Return key and select the Save gadget. 

Changing the Default Font of a Note 

When you save a note, the last font you chose when the Global font option was 
on becomes the default font for the note. The default font is chosen automatically 
when you reopen the note. 

After you save a note, you can specify a different default font for the note by 
selecting the icon for the note, choosing Info from the Workbench menu, and 
selecting the Add gadget. Type "FONT= " followed by the name of the font (as 
shown in the Notepad's font menu), a period, and a number for the font size (e.g. 
FONT = emerald. 20). Finally, press the Return key and select the Save gadget. 

Changing the Default Print Type 

In the Notepad's submenu for Print As, the graphic option is the default. 

To have the Draft option chosen automatically whenever you open Notepad, 

select the Notepad icon, choose Info from the Workbench menu, and select the 

Add gadget. Type "FLAGS = draft", press the Return key and select the Save 

Gadget. 

Changing the Default to Form-Feed 

Form-feed automatically adds a blank line to the top of every page. 

Workbench Tools 5-29 



To use this as the default setting, select the Notepad icon, choose Info from the 
Workbench menu, and select the Add gadget. Type "FLAGS = formfeed", 
press the Return key, and select the Save Gadget. 

Specifying the Global Font Default 

You can specify whether or not the Global font option is chosen when you open 
the Notepad or a note. To do this, select the icon for the Notepad, choose Info 
from the Workbench menu, and select the Add gadget. 

To have the Global Fonts option chosen automatically when you open the 
Notepad or note, type " FLAGS = global" and press the Return key. To specify 
that the Global Font option is not chosen automatically, type "FLAGS = local". 
Press the Return key and select the Save Gadget. 

If you enter FLAGS = global, font changes in a note are not preserved when you 
reopen the note; the characters all become the current default font. 

Turning off the Word Wrap Default 

To change the default from Word Wrap on, select the Notepad icon, choose Info 
from the Workbench menu, and select the Add gadget. Type "FLAGS = now- 
rap", press the Return key and select the Save gadget. 



The Calculator 



The Calculator is a standard four-function calculator you can use to add, sub- 
tract, multiply, and divide numbers. You can find the Calculator in the Utilities 
drawer on the Workbench. 



5-30 Workbench Tools 



Opening the Calculator 

You open the Calculator by selecting its icon, then choosing Open from the 
Workbench menu. When you do, a window for the Calculator appears. 



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The Calculator Keys 

In the Calculator window, each of the Calculator's "buttons" is a gadget. When 
the Calculator window is selected, there are two ways you can "press a button": 

• Select the gadget by pointing within it, then clicking the Selection 
button on the mouse. 




Workbench Tools 



5-31 



• For all but the < - and + - "buttons," type the character or 
characters shown in the gadget. For example, you can clear the 
current entry by pressing the C key on the keyboard, then the E key. 

The buttons for digits, the decimal point, and addition and subtraction are the 
same as those on other calculators. To multiply, use the • button. To divide, use 
the / button. 

Selecting the CE button clears the current entry, while selecting the CA button 
clears the current entry and any previous entries. 

Pressing the + - button changes the sign of the current entry. If the current entry 
is a positive number, it is changed to the negative number that corresponds to it. 
If the entry is negative, it becomes positive. 

When you're entering a number, pressing the <- button deletes the last digit you 
entered. 

To get a result, use the = button. From the keyboard, you can get a result by 
pressing the = key, the Return key, or the Enter key. 



Closing the Calculator 



To close the Calculator, select the Close gadget in the upper left corner of the 
Calculator window. 




5-32 



Workbench Tools 



The Icon Editor 



With the Icon Editor, you can change the appearance of icons that appear on the 
Workbench. You can find the Icon Editor in the System drawer on the Work- 
bench. 

To use the Icon Editor, you must be familiar with the Amiga Disk Operating 
System (AmigaDOS) and the conventions it uses for file names. To learn about 
AmigaDOS, see Chapter 7 in this manual and the AmigaDOS Manual from 
Bantam Books. 

If you are a software developer, you can also use the Icon Editor to create icons 
for new tools, projects, and drawers. To learn how to create new icons, see the 
Amiga ROM Kernel Manual, available from Addison-Wesley. 



— Opening the Icon Editor 

You open the Icon Editor by selecting its icon, then choosing Open from the 
Workbench menu. When you do, a window for the Icon Editor appears. Next, a 
requester appears in the window that describes the different kinds of icons. Select 
the OK gadget to continue. (For information about the different icon types, see 
the Amiga ROM Kernel Manual.) 




Workbench Tools 5-33 



Loading an Icon 

To select an icon you want to change, first select a frame one of the nine boxes to 
the right of the Icon Editor window by pointing within the frame, then clicking 
the Selection button. When you first open the Icon Editor, each of the nine 
frames contains the Icon Editor icon. The icon you select will replace what 
appears in the currently selected frame. 




Next, choose Load Data from the Disk menu. In the requester that appears, select 
the gadget immediately below the words "Enter Icon Name (.info Will Be 
Added)", then enter the AmigaDOS description for the file or directory whose 
icon you want to change. 

This description can be either: 



• the complete AmigaDOS file or directory description. 

• an abbreviated description that specifies the relationship of the file or 
directory to the directory in which the Icon Editor resides. 



5-34 Workbench Tools 



For example, you can load the icon for the Trashcan by entering either: 

dfO:Trashcan 
or: 

/Trashcan 





NOTE: the icon types shown in the requester that appears when you open the 
Icon Editor are not the names of icons. To find the name of a file whose icon you 
want to change, use the AmigaDOS DIR command. 



Workbench Tools 5-35 



After you select the gadget, characters you type appear to the left of the Text 
Cursor (the marker that appears in the gadget when you select it). To move the 
cursor, use the left and right cursor keys. 

There may already be text in the gadget when you select it. You can delete 
characters at and to the right of the Text Cursor by pressing the Del key. Press the 
Backspace key to delete characters to the left of the Text Cursor. 

There are shortcuts you can use to change what appears in the gadget and to 
move the Text Cursor: 



• Press the right Amiga key and Q key at the same time to get back 
what was in the gadget before you selected it. 



• Press the right Amiga key and the X key at the same time to erase 
what appears in the gadget. 



• Press the Shift key and the left cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the leftmost character in the gadget. 



• Press the Shift key and the right cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the right of the rightmost character in the gadget. 

When you've finished entering the file description, select Load Icon Image. If 
you decide not to select an icon, select Cancel The Load. 



Selecting Additional Icons 

With the Icon Editor, you can work with up to nine icons at the same time. To 
select an additional icon, first select the frame in which you want the icon to 
appear, then choose Load Data from the Disk menu. 



5-36 Workbench Tools 



Changing an Icon 

A magnified view of the currently selected frame is shown at the left of the Icon 
Editor window. To change the appearance of an icon, you select the frame in 
which it appears, then change what appears in the magnified view. The tech- 
niques for changing the view are described below. 




Changing an Icon's Colors 

To change the color of an individual pixel in an icon, choose a color from the 
Color menu, point to the pixel you want to change in the magnified view, then 
click the Selection button. By holding down the Selection button while you 
slowly move the mouse, you can add color to larger areas. 



Workbench Tools 5-37 



Filling Areas 

With the Icon Editor's Flood Fill feature, you can fill a contiguous area that is all 
the same color with another color. To fill an area, choose the color you want to 
fill with from the Color menu, then choose Flood Fill from the Misc menu. Next, 
point to the area in the magnified view that you want to fill, then click the 
Selection button. 




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5-38 



Workbench Tools 



Adding Text to an Icon 

There are six steps to adding text to an icon: 

1 . Choose Write Into Frame from the Text menu. 

2. In the requester that appears, select the gadget immediately below the 
words "Icon Text," then enter up to eight characters that you want to add 
to the icon . The characters you type appear to the left of the Text Cursor 
(the marker that appears in the gadget when you select it). To move the 
cursor, use the left and right cursor keys. 




There may already be text in the gadget when you select it. You can delete 
characters at and to the right of the cursor by pressing the DEL key. Press 
the Backspace key to delete characters to the left of the cursor. 

There are shortcuts you can use to change what appears in the gadget and to 
move the Text Cursor: 

• Press the right Amiga key and Q key at the same time to get back 
what was in the gadget before you selected it. 

• Press the right Amiga key and the X key at the same time to erase 
what appears in the gadget. 

• Press the Shift key and the left cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the leftmost character in the gadget. 



Workbench Tools 



5-39 



• Press the Shift key and the right cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the right of the rightmost character in the gadget. 

Select the foreground and background colors for the text. (How the fore- 
ground and background colors are used to display text depends on the 
display mode you select. Display modes for text are described below.) To 
change the foreground color, point within the color immediately to the 
right of the word Foreground, then click the Selection button one or more 
times until the color you want appears. Select the background color in the 
same way. 




There is only one font you can choose for your text. This font, called 
Topaz, is the same one used by the Workbench for menus and icons. You 
can, however, select one of two font sizes: TOPAZ-SIXTY is the larger, 
TOPAZ^EIGHTY the smaller. If the size you want does not appear in the 
gadget labeled Font, select the gadget to change to the other size. 

Select one of the four display modes for text. These modes are: 

• JAM1, where text is shown in the currently selected foreground 
color without a background 



5^0 



JAM2, where text is shown in the foreground color against the 
currently selected background color 

COMPLEMENT, where each pixel that makes up the text is the 
color "opposite" the color of the pixel that it replaces. (To see how 
this works, add text to an icon containing all four colors, then move 
the text as described below.) 

Workbench Tools 



• INVERSVID. When you add INVERSVID text to an icon, the 
background for the text replaces existing pixels in the icon into the 
current background color while the text itself, the current fore- 
ground color, does not. 

To change the display mode, point within the gadget labeled Mode, then 
click the Selection button one or more times until the name of the mode 
you want appears. In the gadget, note that the name of the mode is 
displayed in the gadget using the currently selected foreground color, 
background color, and display mode. 



6. Select the Position gadget to add the text to the icon. In the requester that 
appears, select the arrows to move the text up, down, left, or right. Select 
the Single gadget if you want the text to move only a single pixel each time 
you select an arrow. Select Repeat if you want the text to continue to move 
if you hold down the Selection button after you select an arrow. When the 
text is where you want it, select OK. If you change your mind, select 
Cancel to return to the previous requester without adding text to the icon. 




When you're through adding text, select OK. If you want to start over with the 
icon as it was before you chose Write Into Frame, select Reset. If you decide you 
don't want to add text to the icon, select Cancel. 



Workbench Tools 5-41 



Using the Undo Feature 

If you think that a change you're about to make to an icon may not turn out the 
way you want, choose Snapshot Frame from the Copy menu before you make the 
change. When you do, the Icon Editor saves a copy of the currently selected 
frame. If things go wrong, you can get back what you had before by choosing 
Undo Frame from the Copy menu. 

NOTE: When you choose Undo Frame, the frame that was saved when you last 
chose Snapshot Frame replaces the currently selected frame. After you choose 
Undo Frame, the previous contents of the currently selected frame are no 
longer available. 



Working with Frames 



The Icon Editor's nine frames let you work with more than one icon at the same 
time. You can also use the frames to keep and compare more than one version of 
the same icon. Listed below are techniques you can use when working with 
frames. 



Copying a Frame 

To copy a frame, first select the frame into which you want to make the copy. 
Next, choose the frame you want to copy from the submenu that appears when 
you point to From Frame in the Copy menu. 




5-42 



Workbench Tools 




Moving the Image within a Frame 

To move the image within a frame, choose In-Frame from the Move menu. In the 
requester that appears, select the arrows to move the image up, down, left, or 
right. Select the Single gadget if you want the image to move only a single pixel 
each time you select an arrow. Select Repeat if you want the image to continue to 
move if you hold down the Selection button when you select an arrow. 




The square gadget surrounded by the arrows is the Restore gadget. Select this 
gadget to put the image back where it was before you chose In-Frame. 

When the image is where you want it, select OK. If you change your mind, select 
Cancel to get back what you had before you chose In-Frame. 



Workbench Tools 



5-43 



Exchanging Frames 

To switch the positions of two frames, first select one of the two frames. Next, 
choose the other frame from the submenu that appears when you point to 
Exchange With Frame in the Move menu. 




Merging Frames 

To combine the contents of two frames, first select one of the frames. 
(The combination you create will replace what appears in this frame.) Next, 
choose the other frame from the submenu that appears when you point to Merge 
With Frame in the Copy menu. 




5^4 Workbench Tools 




When pixels in the two frames overlap, the color that appears is determined as 
follows: 



If color (the color at the top of the Color menu) overlaps with any 
other color, the other color is displayed. 

If color 3 (the color at the bottom of the Color menu) overlaps with 
any other color, color 3 is displayed. 

If colors 1 and 2 (the two colors in the middle of the Color menu) 
overlap, color 3 (the color at the bottom of the Color menu) is 



displayed. 



Highlighting an Icon 

When you select an icon on the Workbench, it is highlighted to indicate that it's 
selected. There are two ways an icon can be highlighted: 



It can be shown in inverse video. In inverse video, any part of an icon 
normally shown using color (the color at the top of the Color menu) 
becomes color 3 (the color at the bottom of the Color menu); color 1 
(the color just below color in the menu) becomes color 2; color 2 
becomes color 1; color 3 becomes Color 0. 



Workbench Tools 5-45 



• It can be "backfilled." A backfilled icon is the same as an icon 
shown in inverse video, with one exception: contiguous areas of an 
icon normally shown in color that adjoin any of the borders of the 
icon remain color when the icon is highlighted. 

To highlight an icon in inverse video, choose Inverse from the HiLite menu 
before you save the icon. To backfill a highlighted icon, choose Backfill from the 
HiLite menu before you save the icon. 



Specifying the Border Width 

Below each icon on the Workbench is the name of the file that the icon 
represents. The Icon Editor lets you choose either to put one blank line between 
the icon's image and its name or not to put space between the icon and the image. 
From the Misc menu, choose either (for no space) or 1 (for one line between 
the image and the name) from the submenu that appears when you point to the 
Set Bottom Border item. 



Saving an Icon 

When you save an icon, you replace an icon on the Workbench with the icon in 
the currently selected frame. However, the type of the icon you replace and the 
type of the icon that was most recently loaded into the currently selected frame 
must be the same. There are five types of icons: 



TYPE 


REPRESENTS 


EXAMPLE 


Disk 


Disk drawers 


Workbench disk icon 


Drawer 


Drawers other than 
disk drawers 


System icon 


Tool 


Tools 


Icon Editor icon 


Project 


Projects 


Icon for a Notepad not 


Garbage 


A drawer that cannot be 
moved to another drawer 


Trashcan icon 



5-46 



Workbench Tools 



When you open the Icon Editor, the Icon Editor icon is loaded into all nine 
frames. Because the Icon Editor icon represents a tool, you must load another 
icon if you want to replace an icon of another type. 

There are three steps to saving an icon: 

1. Select the frame containing the icon. 

2. Choose Save Data from the Disk menu. In the requester that appears, select 
the gadget immediately below the words "Enter Icon Name (.info Will Be 
Added)" and then enter the AmigaDOS description for the file or directory 
whose icon you want to replace. This description can be either: 

• the complete AmigaDOS file or directory description 

• an abbreviated description that specifies the relationship of the file or 
directory to the directory in which the Icon Editor resides. For 
example, you can replace the icon for the Trashcan by entering either 
of the following: 

dfl):Trashcan 

/Trashcan 

After you select the gadget, characters you type appear to the left of the 
Text Cursor (the marker that appears in the gadget when you select it). To 
move the cursor, use the left and right cursor keys. 

There may already be text in the gadget when you select it. You can delete 
characters at and to the right of the Text Cursor by pressing the DEL key. 
Press the Backspace key to delete characters to the left of the Text Cursor. 

There are shortcuts you can use to change what appears in the gadget and to 
move the Text Cursor: 

• Press the right Amiga key and Q key at the same time to get back 
what was in the gadget before you selected it. 

• Press the right Amiga key and the X key at the same time to erase 
what appears in the gadget. 

• Press the Shift key and the left cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the leftmost character in the gadget. 

Workbench Tools 5^7 



3. 



• Press the Shift key and the right cursor key at the same time to move 
the Text Cursor to the right of the rightmost character in the gadget. 

When you've finished entering the file description, there are two ways to 
save the icon: 



• If you want the icon to include the entire image that's in the frame, 
select Save Full Image. 




• If you want the icon to include only a part of the image that's in the 
frame, select Frame and Save. Next, "frame" within a rectangle the 
part of the magnified view you want to include in the icon: point to a 
place in the magnified view where you want the top left corner of the 
rectangle, then click the Selection button. Move the mouse to change 
the size of the rectangle. When you've framed within the rectangle 
the part the image you want, click the Selection button a second time 
to save the icon. (If you change your mind about saving the icon after 
you've selected the top left corner, move the Pointer outside the 
magnified view and click a mouse button.) 

If you decide not to save an icon after you've chosen Save Data, select Cancel 
the Save in the requester. 

When you look on the Workbench for an icon you've saved, remember that it 
doesn't replace the previous icon until the next time you open the drawer that 
contains it. 



5-48 



Workbench Tools 



Stopping the Icon Editor 

When you are finished using the Icon Editor, close it by selecting the Close 
Gadget in the upper left corner of the Icon Editor window. 



The Say Speech Synthesizer 

Say lets you type in English words and sentences which the Amiga then "says" 
using its audio capabilities. To use the feature, open the System drawer and 
double-click on the Say icon. Two new windows will open. One is labeled 
Phoneme window and the other is labeled Input window. You can use the 
standard Amiga window manipulation techniques to move or change the size of 
both the Phoneme and Input windows. 

Activate the Input window by moving the pointer into it and clicking with the 
mouse. Now type the words or sentences you want the Amiga to "speak" and 
press the Return key. You will hear the Amiga repeat those words. 
If you type long lines or sentences, don't press Return when you reach the right 
edge of the input window. The text automatically wraps around to the next line. 
(Don't worry if the line is broken in the middle of a word.) After you type in your 
words and press Return, text appears in the Phoneme window just before the 
Amiga speaks. This display is a phonetic interpretation of your words (that is, it 
is an interpretation of the sounds necessary to speak the words). Say translates 
what you type into sounds using a phoenetic alphabet and phonetic rules. This 
translation is printed in the Phoneme window. 




Workbench Tools 5-49 



To use and enjoy Say, you don't need to learn all the rules of phonetics. 
However, since phonetic spelling is based on how words sound rather than how 
they are conventionally spelled, you should think in terms of sounds used in 
pronunciation rather than spelling. At the same time watch how Say spells 
different words (or sounds) in the Phoneme window. A good dictionary will be 
helpful for looking up the pronunciation of words you are uncertain about. 

You can change the voice, pitch and speed of your Amiga's speech by choosing 
different options in the Phoneme window. You have a choice of male, female, 
robot or natural voice, select the voice you want by typing the appropriate code 
(from the list below) in the Phoneme window and pressing the Return key: 

-m for male voice 

-f for female voice 

-r for robot voice 

-n for natural voice 

To change the pitch of the voice, in the Input window type-p followed by a 
number from 65 through 320 and press the Return key. The higher the number 
you type, the higher the voice's pitch will be. If you change the voice, you must 
also change the pitch to hear a difference. 

To change the speed of the voice, in the Input window type-s followed by a 
number of 40 through 400. The higher the number you type, the faster the voice 
speaks. 

To close Say, just move the pointer into the Input window, activate the window 
by clicking the Selection button and then press the Return key without typing any 
words first. 



Graphic Dump 

The Graphic Dump lets you print entire screen images, including menus and 
icons, just as they appear on your monitor. 

To use Graphic Dump, open the System drawer and double-click on the Graphic 
Dump icon. After a delay of approximately 10 seconds, the entire screen image 
that is foremost on the monitor is "dumped" to the printer. You must have a 
graphics printer connected to your Amiga, which has to be been properly 
selected in Preferences. Printer settings on Preferences are completely explained 
in the next chapter. 

5-50 Workbench Tools 



The 10-second delay allows you time to move images on the screen, open 
menus, or move the current Workbench screen to the back to let another screen 
image be printed. 



SetMap 

There are several different keyboards available for the Amiga. SetMap allows 
you to select the correct "key map" for the keyboard you wish to use. The key 
map is a list that tells the Amiga the right character to print for each key on a 
keyboard. 

The SetMap tool is in the system drawer on the Workbench. To use SetMap, 
open the system drawer and do the following: 

1. Select the SetMap icon, choose Info from the Workbench menu, and select 
the Add gadget. 

2. Select the String Gadget between the Add Gadget and the words Tool Types 
and type "KEYMAP= " followed by the name of a new key map. The key 
maps available are: 

d for German keyboards 

e for Spanish keyboards 

f for French keyboards 

gb for British keyboards 

i for Italian keyboards 

is for Icelandic keyboards 

s for Swedish/Finnish keyboards 

usa for standard United States keyboards 

usaO This is the key map provided with the I.I release of the Amiga 
system software. Some programs may require this keymap to func- 
tion properly. 

usa2 for Dvorak keyboards 

When you have finished entering the name of the key map, press the Return 
key. 

3. Select the Save Gadget and when the Workbench reappears, point to the 
SetMap icon and double-click the Selection button. 



Workbench Tools 5-51 



Note: Keymaps for the keyboards listed above are shown in Appendix C. Not all 
of the keyboards listed above are currently manufactured. It is also possible that 
other key maps may become available. Consult your Amiga dealer for informa- 
tion about availability. Each keymap has a set of alternate characters. The 
alternate character set includes special symbols and diacritical marks used in 
each language. To enter an alternate character, hold down the Alt key while 
pressing another key on the keyboard. Included among the alternate characters in 
the new key maps are "dead" keys. These keys allow you to add accents and 
other diacritical marks to selected characters. When you press a "dead" key, the 
cursor does not advance; thus, the diacritical mark and the next character you 
type appear in the same position. Not all characters can be combined with 
"dead" keys. 

Other Icons in the System Drawer 

NoFastMem--Some programs may not run correctly in non-chip (expansion) 
memory, and may have to be loaded in chip memory to run properly. The 
NoFastMem program forces the Amiga to use only chip RAM for programs 
(allowing those programs to run properly). This program works as a toggle; 
click on the NoFastMem icon a second time to reinstall all available 
expansion memory. 

InitPrinter - Select this icon to initialize a printer using the printer settings 
selected via Preferences. Note: the printer is automatically initialized the 
first time you open InitPrinter. 

FastMemFirsi— This program "rearranges" the Amiga's memory list, affecting 
when memory at SC00000 will be allocated. This allows programs to use 
fast memory before SC00000 memory resulting in faster system operation. 
Unless specifically requested to use chip RAM, the Amiga 2000 defaults to 
using SC00000 RAM, fast RAM, then chip RAM. FastMemFirst changes 
the order of allocation, to fast RAM, $C00000 RAM, then chip RAM 
(unless specifically requested to use chip RAM). 

These programs may be run from the CLI (see Chapter 7). This is particularly 
useful if you have fast memory installed (e.g., an A2052 RAM Expander), 
because you can include FastMemFirst in your Startup-Sequence. If you have a 
hard disk installed, it is preferable to add FastMemFirst before BindDrivers for 
most efficient performance. 



5-52 Workbench Tools 



Chapter 6 



_ Using Preferences 



About Preferences 6-3 

Using the Preferences Tool 6-3 

Date and Time 6-5 

Key Repeat Speed 6-5 

Key Repeat Delay 6-5 

Mouse Speed 6-6 

Double-Click Delay 6-6 

Text Size 6-6 

CLI 6-6 

Display Centering 6-7 

Serial Connector 6-7 

Workbench Colors 6-9 

Interlace 6-9 

Editing the Pointer 6-10 
The Pointer Editing Window 6-10 
Changing the Colors 6-11 
Changing the Pointer 6-11 
Changing the Point 6-12 

Printers 6-13 

Getting Back Preferences 6-17 

Using and Saving Preferences 6-17 



Using Preferences 6-1 



This chapter explains how to "personalize" your Amiga by changing the settings in 
Preferences, including selections for : 



• printers and related details 

• key and mouse speeds 

• editing and designing the Workbench pointer 



About Preferences 



Preferences is a tool that lets you see and change many of the settings of your 
Amiga. These are the settings you can change with Preferences: 



Serial Baud 
Rate 



Workbench 
Colors 



Key Repeat Delay 



Key Repeat Speed 




Mouse Speed 

Double-Click 
Delay 

Printers 
Edit Pointer 



Using the Preferences Tool 



With the Preferences tool, you can make a number of changes to your Amiga. In 
this tutorial, you'll learn how to start using Preferences, how to use Preferences 
to make the correct monitor setting, and what to do when you're finished using 
Preferences. The rest of the chapter explains each of the Preferences option in 
detail. 



Using Preferences 6-3 



Double-click on the Workbench disk icon, then double-click on the Prefer- 
ences icon. A window for Preferences appears. 



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Tools use windows to display information and to accept information from you. 
The Preferences window shows you the current settings for Preferences and lets 
you change them. At the left of the Preferences window, you set the number of 
characters (letters, numbers, and symbols) to appear on each line of the display. 
To the right of the word Text are two gadgets, one marked 60 and the other 
marked 80. If you're using an Amiga Monitor or another RGB monitor, select 
80. If you have an NTSC monitor or television attached to your Amiga, select 
60. The gadget for the option you choose is highlighted in a different color; the 
unchosen option remains the background color. 



Key Repeat Islav 



Key Repeat Speed 




When you're done, select Save to save your choices on the Workbench disk and 
return to the Workbench. 



6-4 Using Preferences 



Date and Time 



To change the date or time, first select the digit you want to change by pointing 
to it, then clicking the Selection button. With a digit selected, you can: 



• select the up arrow to increase the selected digit by one 

• select the down arrow to decrease the selected digit by one 

The leftmost digits of the date are the day of the month, the middle letters are the 
name of the month, and the rightmost digits are the last two digits of the year. 
The time is shown using a 24-hour clock. 

Note that if any of the numbers is as large as it can be, increasing it increases the 
value for the next larger interval of time. For example, if the value for the hours 
is 1 1 and the value for the minutes is 59, increasing the digit 9 for the minutes 
leaves you at 12:00. Conversely, decreasing a value that is as small as it can be 
decreases the value for the next smaller interval of time. 



Key Repeat Speed 

To make keys on the keyboard repeat more quickly when you hold down a key, 
drag the arrow on the slider labeled Key Repeat Speed to the right. To slow down 
the rate at which keys repeat, drag the arrow to the left. 



Key Repeat Delay 

When you hold down a key that repeats, there is a delay before the key begins 
repeating. To increase this delay, drag the arrow on the slider labeled Key Repeat 
Delay to the right. To decrease the delay, drag the arrow to the left. 

Warning: Be aware that it is possible to set the key repeat too fast, since the 
display takes a finite amount of time to update. 



Using Preference's 6-5 



Mouse Speed 

The three settings for mouse speed let you change how far the Pointer moves 
when you move the mouse. The settings 1 , 2, and 4 are the number of inches you 
move the mouse to move the Pointer roughly a third of the way across the 
display. The larger the number, the more room you need for the mouse. 



Double-Click Delay 

You use the Double-Click Slider to set the maximum length of time between the 
two clicks of a double-click. Drag the arrow down to increase the maximum 

length of time. Drag the arrow up to decrease the maximum time. 



Text Size 



To make the best use of your monitor, you can choose the size of the characters 
that appear on the display. Most NTSC monitors and televisions can show 60 
characters clearly on each line of the display, while RGB monitors can display 80 
characters clearly. If you have an NTSC monitor or television connected to the 
Amiga, select the gadget labeled 60 to the right of the word Text. If you have an 
RGB monitor connected to the Amiga, select the gadget labeled 80. 



CLI 



In addition to the Workbench, the Amiga includes another user interface, the 
Command Line Interface (CLI). To make an icon for the CLI appear in the 
System drawer on the Workbench, select the ON gadget immediately to the right 
of "CLI" on the Preferences screen, then select the Save gadget to save the new 
setting. If the system drawer is already open when you leave Preferences, you 
must close it and reopen it to make the icon appear. To learn about the CLI, see 
Chapter 7. 



6-6 Using Preferences 



Display Centering 

To center the image on a video display, move the Pointer into the corner of the 
symbol that appears in the Display Centering Gadget, hold down the Selection 
button, then move the mouse to change the position of the image. 



Serial Connector 

If you have a peripheral hooked up to the serial connector of your Amiga, you 
can change various parameters, such as the rate at which information is trans- 
ferred through the connector. To do this, select the gadget labeled Change Serial. 
A new window appears, which contains the gadgets you need to change the 
settings for serial communication to meet the requirements of your particular 
application or peripheral. 




Using Preferences 6-7 



The serial settings are: 

• Baud Rate. This is the number of bits transferred through the serial 
connnector each second. The current rate is shown immediately 
below the words Baud Rate. To change the Baud Rate, select either 
the Up or Down arrow to the right of the rate. 

• Buffer Size. The Serial buffer is an area of memory set aside for 
serial communication. Its size is shown immediately below the words 
Buffer Size. To change it, select either the Up or Down arrow to the 
right of the size. 

• Read Bits. This is the number of bits expected for each character 
received through the serial connector. You can select either 7 or 8 
bits. 

• Write Bits. This is the number of bits that are sent through the serial 
connector for each character. As with the Read Bits, the setting is 
either 7 or 8 bits. 

• Stop Bits. Stop bits are bits added to the end of a character that mark 
where it ends. You can select either 1 or 2. This is the number of bits 
added to each character sent through the serial connector and the 
number expected at the end of each character that is read. 

• Parity. Parity is a method for reducing transmission errors. Select 
Even to specify even parity, Odd for odd parity, or None for no parity 
checking. 

• Handshaking. This setting lets you specify one of two methods to 
control the flow of information through the serial connector. You can 
select xON/xOFF, RTS/CTS, or none if you do not need either 
method. 

When you're through changing these settings, select OK to confirm your selec- 
tions or Cancel to cancel them. Selecting either OK or Cancel returns you to the 
Preferences window. 



6-8 Using Preferences 



Workbench Colors 

With Preferences, you can change any of the four colors displayed by the 
Workbench. Start by selecting the color you want to change from the four colors 
shown. Below these colors are three sliders labeled R, G, and B. These letters 
stand for red, green, and blue, the colors that the Amiga combines to create the 
colors it displays. To modify the color you've selected, you change the amount 
of red, green, and blue in the color by dragging the arrows along the sliders. 




Try dragging the arrows in the sliders and watch how the color changes. With a 
bit of practice, you'll be able to get the colors you want. 

To get back the colors you had before you opened Preferences, select the gadget 
labeled Reset Colors. (To get back the original Workbench colors — the ones 
displayed when you inserted the original Workbench disk that came with the 
Amiga — select the Reset All gadget described below.) 



Interlace 



To change the display to interlace mode, change this setting (which is in the 
upper right corner of the screen) to On and then save the setting by selecting the 
Save gadget. Then reset the Amiga to activate the new display. This doubles 
the number of horizontal lines that make up the Workbench screen. 



Using Preferences 6-9 



On many monitors, the colors in an interlaced screen may appear to flicker. You 
can often minimize this effect by changing the screen colors. (For the Work- 
bench, see the paragraphs which follow.) Experiment to find the colors that work 
best on your monitor. Alternatively, "long persistence" monitors are now 
available which greatly reduce the flicker. These monitors can be valuable in 
applications that require interlace screens. Consult your Amiga dealer for more 
details. 



Editing the Pointer 

You can use the Preferences tool to modify the Pointer. The following instruc- 
tions tell you how. 

The Pointer Editing Window 

When the Preferences screen appears, select the Edit Pointer Gadget near the 
lower right-hand corner of the screen. In a moment, a window appears. In this 
window the Pointer Editing Window a magnified image of the Pointer appears at 
the upper left. 




It is this magnified image that you modify to change the Pointer. To the right of 
the magnified view are copies of the Pointer that appear against each of the four 
Workbench colors; these copies let you judge how the Pointer will look against 
the colors on the Workbench. 



6-10 Using Preferences 



Changing the Colors 

These colors can be different from those used for the Workbench. You can 
modify the three colors to the left in the same way you modify the Workbench 
colors: by changing the R, G, and B values for each. 

The rightmost "color' ' is not a color at all: any parts of the Pointer you draw with 
it are transparent. When you move the Pointer, colors on the Workbench behind 
any transparent parts of the Pointer show through. If you modify the Pointer 
colors then want to get back the last colors that were saved, select the ResetColor 
Gadget. 




Changing the Pointer 

To modify the Pointer, select one of the colors or transparent, point to a place in 
the magnified view where you want a pixel of that color, then click the Selection 
button. If you want to start from scratch, select Clear to make all the pixels 
transparent. (If, after you make changes, you'd rather have the old Pointer back, 
select Restore.) 




Using Preferences 6-1 1 



Changing the Point 

Every Pointer has a single pixel called the point. To point to something on the 
display, position the Pointer so that this pixel is over it. 

In the magnified view of the Pointer, the point is indicated by a smaller square 
within one of the pixels. To change the Pointer's point, select Set Point, point to 
the pixel in the magnified view you want as the point, then click the Selection 
button. 




When you're done and are happy with the Pointer you've created, select OK. 

If you select SAVE from the Preferences screen, you can save the new pointer on 

your Workbench. Then, whenever you load the Workbench, the new pointer will 
appear. (The Protect tab on your Workbench desk must be in the Write Enable 
position when you save the pointer.) 

To get back to the main Preferences screen without changing the previous 
Pointer, select Cancel. 



6-12 Using Preferences 



Printers 

If you've attached a printer to the Amiga, you need to tell the Amiga the type of 
printer you've attached. You do this by selecting Change Printer. When you do, 
the Change Printer Screen appears: 




In this screen, you can select: 



Printer Type. The names of printers supported by the Amiga appear 
in the upper right of the screen. To indicate the printer you're using, 
select either the up arrow or down arrow until the name of your 
printer is highlighted. More information about specific printers for 
the Amiga is found in Appendix D. 

Makers of other printers may provide a file on disk that allows you to 
use their printers with the Amiga. If the instructions for your printer 
state that you are to indicate a printer file, select Custom from the list 
of printers. Next, select the gadget immediately to the right of the 
words Custom Printer Name. Finally, type in the name of the file 
indicated in the instructions. 

If you want to attach a printer that is not supported by the Amiga and 
you do not have a file for it, select Custom from the list of printers, 
then enter Generic in the Custom Printer Name gadget. For many 
printers, this will allow you to print plain text, but not graphics or 
extra type styles such as italics. 



Using Preferences 6-13 



• Parallel or Serial Connection. If your printer is attached to the 
parallel connector on the Amiga, select the gadget labeled Parallel at 
the upper left of the screen. If it's attached to the serial connector, 
select the gadget labeled Serial. 

• Paper Size. There are four preset sizes you can select from: US 
Letter (8-1/2 inches wide, II inches tall), US Legal (8-1/2 inches 
wide, 14 inches tall), Narrow Tractor (9-1/2 inches wide, 1 1 inches 
tall), and Wide Tractor (14-7/8 inches wide, 1 1 inches tall). 

You can use other sizes of paper by selecting Custom. When you 
select Custom, you must also specify the number of lines that fit on 
the size of the paper you're using. To do this, select the gadget 
labeled Length just below the paper sizes, then type in the number of 
lines. 

Sometimes when printing in graphics mode on Epson and other dot 
matrix printers, narrow blank lines appear across the printout. Select- 
ing Custom for paper size may eliminate this. 

• Left and Right Margins. You indicate the width of these margins by 
specifying numbers of characters from the left-hand edge of the 
paper. To specify the width of the left margin, select the gadget to the 
right of the words Left Margin, then type in the width, in characters, 
of the left margin. To specify the width of the right margin, select the 
gadget to the right of the words Right Margin, then type in the width, 
in characters, for the distance from the left-hand edge of the paper to 
where the right margin begins. 

• Paper Type. Select Fanfold if you're using continuous- feed paper. 
Select Single if you're printing on individual sheets. 

• Quality. For faster but lower-quality printing, select Draft. For 
higher-quality printing, select Letter. 

• Pitch. You use this to select the size of the characters that are 
printed. You can select from among 10 pitch ( "pica"), 12 pitch ( 
"elite"), and 15 pitch ( "fine"). 

• Spacing. This lets you select how closely lines are printed on the 
page. Select either 6 or 8 lines per inch ( "lpi"). 



6-14 Using Preferences 



Note: Many tools use the Length, Spacing, Left Margin, and Right Margin 
settings rather than the Paper Size setting to determine how large an image to 
print. For these tools, check to see whether what you print will fit on the paper by 
using the following formulas: Length -J- Spacing must be smaller than the length 
of the paper, in inches; ((Right Margin Setting - Left Margin Setting) + 1) * 
Pitch Setting must be smaller than the width of the paper, in inches. 

There is an additional gadget in this screen labeled Graphic Select. Selecting this 
gadget opens the Printer Graphics screen: 




You use this screen to select different ways to print images: 

• Shade lets you select color printing, gray-scale printing (where 
colors are represented by different shades of gray), or black-and- 
white printing (where some colors are printed as pure black, and 
others as pure white. Whether a color is printed as black or white is 
determined by the threshold value described below.) 



Using Preferences 6-15 



• Aspect lets you select whether to print normally or "sideways" on 
the page. Select Horizontal to print "normally," so that what appears 
on the top of the display appears along the top edge of the printer 
paper. Select Vertical to print what appears on the top of the display 
along the side of the printer paper. 

• Image lets you print an image as it appears on the display (by 
selecting Positive) or "reversed" (by selecting Negative). This set- 
ting affects only black-and-white and gray scale printing. 

• Threshold, for black-and-white printing, lets you determine which 
colors are printed as white, and which as black. You change the 
Threshold setting by dragging the arrow in the slider below the label 
Threshold. When the setting for Image is Positive and the Threshold 
setting is 2, only the darkest color on the display is printed as black, 
while the rest is white. Increasing the value of the Threshold setting 
causes more colors to be printed as black. As you increase the 
setting, the lighter colors are printed as black. 

When the setting for Image is Negative, the higher the Threshold 
setting, the lighter are the colors that are printed as black. 

Note that not all these choices apply to all printers. For example, letter-quality 
printers that use a "daisy wheel" printhead can only produce one quality of 
printing. To find out what selections apply to your printer, see the documentation 
provided with the printer. 

When you're done making selections for your printer, select OK to confirm your 
selections or Cancel to cancel them. Selecting either OK or Cancel returns you to 
the Change Printer Screen. 

More information is available on printers in Chapter 8, "Adding to the Amiga," 
and Appendix D. 



6-16 Using Preferences 



Getting Back Preferences 

If you'd like to get back the Preferences settings that came with the original 
Workbench disk, select Reset All. If you'd like to get back the last Preferences 
settings you saved, select Last Saved. 



Using and Saving Preferences 

When you're done with Preferences, select one of the gadgets at the lower right 
of the window. Select Save if you want your settings to take effect now and each 
time you start up the Workbench with the Workbench disk you're currently 
using. Selecting Save saves your settings on the Workbench disk. Select Use if 
you want your settings to take effect now, but you don't want to save the settings 
on the Workbench disk for future use. If you change the settings, then decide you 
don't want them to take effect, select Cancel. 

Because each Workbench disk keeps its own Preferences settings, different 
people can save their own settings on separate Workbench disks. To get back 
your settings, just set up the Workbench using the disk on which you've saved 
them. 



Using Preferences 6-17 



Chapter 7 



AmigaDOS and the CO 



Accessing CL1 7-3 

Commonly Used CL1 Commands 7-5 

Copying a Disk 7-6 

Formatting a Disk 7-8 

Relabeling a Disk 7-8 

Looking at a Directory 7-9 

Using the LIST Command 7-10 

Getting Information About the File System 7-12 

Changing the Directory 7-12 

Setting the Date and Time 7-14 

Redirecting the Output of a Command 7-14 

Typing a Textfile to the Screen 7-16 

Changing the Name of a File 7-16 

Deleting Files 7-17 

Copying Files 7-18 

Creating a New Directory 7-19 

Is My File Somewhere on This Disk? 7-20 

Using the RAM Disk 7-21 

Changing Startup-Sequence 7-23 

Setting the Real Time Clock 7-24 

Creating a New CLI Window 7-24 
Closing CLI 7-25 
Closing Comments 7-26 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-1 



You don't always have to use the Amiga by clicking the mouse on icons and menus. 
You can communicate directly with AmigaDOS by opening a CLI window. CLI 
stands for command line interface. The CLI allows you to directly issue commands 
to perform disk operations and file manipulations using the AmigaDOS by typing 
commands, which appear in the CLI window. The mouse is not used once you have 
entered CLI. 



Accessing CLI 

To access CLI, the gadget for CLI in Preferences must be set to on. 

Your Workbench disk may already have CLI set on, and you need only open its 
icon. Open the System drawer. If CLI is set to on, there will be an icon for it in 
this drawer; if there is no CLI icon, you will have to turn on CLI using 
Preferences. 



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AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-3 



To turn on CLI, double-click on the Preferences icon from the Workbench 
screen. On the Preferences screen, go to the CLI window and click the pointer in 
the ON gadget. 




Save the Preferences settings and return to the Workbench screen. 

Reset the computer (press the CTRL and both Amiga keys simultaneously), and 
reboot the Workbench disk. 

This time, select the System drawer, and you'll see an icon for CLI. Double- 
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There is a prompt, with a number followed by >, at which you can enter 
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7-4 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



multiple CLI windows at one time). Once you have saved Preferences with CLI 
set on, you can open the CLI window from the System drawer without having to 
reset Preferences again. 



Commonly Used CLI Commands 

Since this manual serves merely as an introduction to the Amiga, rather than 
present CLI as a volume in this chapter, we'll just review some frequently used 
AmigaDOS commands in typical applications. Reading this won't make you a 
programmer, but it will give you a feel for using AmigaDOS with the CLI. More 
in-depth CLI information and reference material may be found in the AmigaDOS 
User's Manual, from Bantam Books. 

The commands summarized in this chapter can be used to perform the following 
tasks: 

• Copying a disk (DISKCOPY) 

• Formatting a new disk (FORMAT) 

• Relabeling a disk (RELABEL) 

• Looking at a disk's directory (DIR) 

• Viewing the files in a directory (LIST) 

• Protecting a file from deletion (PROTECT) 

• Getting information about a file system (INFO) 

• Changing the current directory (CD) 

• Setting the date and time (DATE) 

• Typing a text file to the screen (TYPE) 

• Renaming a file (RENAME) 

• Deleting a file (DELETE) 

• Copying files on a single disk system (COPY) 

• Copying files on a dual disk system (COPY) 

• Creating a new directory (MAKEDIR) 

• Redirecting the output of a command (>) 

• Using the RAM disk 

• Changing the Startup-Sequence 

• Setting the Real Time Clock (SETCLOCK) 

• Opening a new CLI window (NEWCLI) 

• Closing an existing CLI window (ENDCLI) 

We suggest you read and try each of these items in sequence. Each command 
leaves the Amiga in a known state, so the command which immediately follows 
will work exactly as shown. 

AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-5 



Before you begin this section, be sure you have two blank double-sided dis- 
kettes, along with your Workbench disk. Write-protect your master diskette, and 
write-enable the blank disk before you begin (by sliding the write-protect 
notches, as explained in Chapter 2). Most of the commands reviewed in this 
chapter assume that you have a single disk drive system. However, for conve- 
nience of those with more than one disk drive, the two disk version of the 
command is occasionally given. 

After typing each command, press the Return key to return control to Amiga- 
DOS. Although the commands are all shown in capital letters, it is mainly to help 
you distinguish them from the rest of the text. 

AmigaDOS accepts the commands in both upper and lower case. 

In the sections which follow, the notations "dfO;" and "drive 0" refer to the 
built-in 3.5" disk drive occupying the right-hand location in the disk drive 
mounting area of the Amiga 2000; built into the Amiga, "dfl:" is the first 
additional 3.5" disk drive. 



Copying a Disk 

You can use this sequence to backup your Workbench master disk, or any other 
disk. 

For a one disk system, type: 

DISKCOPY FROM dfO: TO dfO: 

For a two disk system, type: 

DISKCOPY FROM dfO: TO df1 : 



7-6 AmigaDOS and the CLI 




Follow the instructions as they appear. For a single drive system, you are 
prompted to insert the master disk (the disk you are copying information from — 
the FROM disk). Then, as the copying progresses, AmigaDOS asks you to insert 
the copy (the disk you are backing up information onto — the TO disk), swapping 
master and copy in and out until all of the diskette has been duplicated. 

For a two disk system, you'll be told to put the master disk into drive dfO: (the 
built-in disk drive) and the copy disk into dfl: (the first extension disk drive). 

Remove your master disk (Workbench) and put it in a safe place. Leave the copy 
write-enabled so you can write on it. Insert the copy you just made into the built- 
in drive and reboot your system from the copy. 

After the reboot, re-enter CLI mode again, by double-clicking on icons for 
Workbench, the System drawer, and CLI. 

From this point on, any mention of your Workbench disk (such as making sure 
you have your Workbench disk in drive to try a command) will refer to the 
copy of Workbench you've just created. This way, any difficulties will only alter 
a back-up disk, while your master Workbench disk is safe and available to make 

more copies, should that be necessary. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-7 



Formatting a Disk 

To try this command, your disk copy of Workbench should be in drive 0, and 
you should have a blank disk available. 

Sometimes, rather than copy a disk, you may want to prepare a data disk for your 
system. You can't just use a blank disk; it has to be formatted first. Once it's 
formatted, the disk is usable, to copy selected files to as a data disk, for example. 
To format a blank disk, you use the FORMAT command: 

FORMAT DRIVE dfO: NAME AnyName 




Follow the instructions given by the computer. You can format disks in either 
drive (the drive built into your Amiga, dfO:) or an external drive. 

Wait for the disk activity light to go off (after the formatting is completed), and 
remove the freshly formatted disk. Reinsert your Workbench disk. The formatted 
disk can now be used to hold data files. 



Relabeling a Disk 



Insert your copy of Workbench into drive to try this command. 

If, after either copying or formatting a disk, you want to change the volume 
name, use the RELABEL command; for example, to change the name of the disk 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 



we just formatted from AnyName to MyDisk, type: 

RELABEL AnyName: MyDisk 

In this example, we've referred to the disk we just formatted by its volume name. 
You are asked to insert volume AnyName into any disk drive so that RELABEL 
can relabel it. 

After this command is completed, remove the disk and reinsert your Workbench 
disk. The "AnyName" disk you removed now has the new name. 



Looking at a Directory 

To try this command, your Workbench disk should be in drive 0. 

To look at the contents of a disk, issue the command: 

DIR 

This form lists the contents of your current directory. 




You can list the contents of a different directory by specifying the pathname for 
that directory. The AmigaDOS filing system organizes directories in a structure. 
The main directory, the one we just saw the contents of with the DIR command, 
is known as the root directory. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-9 



The root directory can contain files or subdirectories, which can contain files or 
additional directories. This will be explained further a little later on. A pathname 
identifies the "path" for AmigaDOS to find a certain directory or file, according 
to the structure of the filing system. 

The command: 

DIR dfO:c 

lists the contents of the c(dir) on drive 0. Directories are equivalent to the system 
drawers you see when the Workbench is visible. 

You can look at the directory of a different disk unit (if you have one) by 
specifying its name: 

DIRdfl: 

lists the contents of a disk inserted in disk unit 1 (the first external drive 
attached). 

You can even look at the directory of a disk which isn't currently in the drive, by 
specifying its volume name. For example, the contents of the freshly formatted 
disk we relabeled can be displayed by the following command: 

DIR MyDisk: 

AmigaDOS asks you to insert that disk into the drive to allow DIR to read it and 
report the contents of the directory. Don't do it yet, though, because there are no 
files present on that disk right now for DIR to read. We'll add some files soon. 



Using the LIST Command 

Try this command with your Workbench disk in drive 0. 

The DIR command tells you the names of the files in your directory. 



7-10 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



The LIST command takes it one step further, providing additional information 
about those files. Type the command: 



LIST 



or 



LIST dfO: 



AmigaDOS provides information about all the files in the current directory, 
including how large the file is, whether it can be deleted, whether it's a file or 
directory, and the date and time of its creation. 

If you specify the name of a directory with LIST, it lists information about the 
files within that directory: 

LISTc 

The "rwed" in the listing refers to protection flags, standing for read, write, 
execute asnd delete. When each flag is set (using the PROTECT command), a 
file is supposed to be readable, writable, executable or deleteable. 

The PROTECT command can protect a file from being deleted accidentally. 

Try typing the command: 

DATE > myfile 
PROTECT myfile 
LIST myfile 



You will see that the protect flags have been set to " — ", Now, if you try: 

DELETE myfile 

AmigaDOS responds: 

Not Deleted - file is protected from deletion 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-1 1 



To re-enable deletion of the file, type: 

PROTECT myfile d 

or 

PROTECT myfile rwed 

Getting Information About the File System 

With your Workbench copy in drive 0, type the command: 

INFO 

This tells you how much space is used and how much space is available on your 
disks, whether they are read-only or read-write, and the name of the volume. 







■tfaritiench 5;re?n .SIcB 






-icinl 




Mounted disks: 

Unit Size Used Free Full Errs Status Hixc 

Of 9: 888K 1(6? 91 9fa 8 (tad/toile Hsirfetrach 1.2 

Votmtes available: -\ 

Korhlwnch 1.2 IHwinted) 

"1 f 


m mmmsL 


m^*i« i-kM 





Changing the Directory 

Up until now. we've only considered the "root" level of the diskette directory. 
An empty disk contains one directory, the root directory. 

If you create a file on an empty disk, then that file appears in the root directory. 
However, directories can also contain further directories (sub-directories). Each 

7-12 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



directory may contain files, further directories, or both. Any filename is unique 
within its own directory, meaning that a filename can be repeated in different 
directories. For example, the file "program" can exist in directory A, and be 
completely different from the file "program" in directory B. 

This filing structure ensures that two people sharing a disk can name their files as 
they see fit without having to worry about overwriting any other files on the disk, 
as long as they keep their own directory. 

You can also use the filing structure to organize different types of files in 
different directories on the disk. 

To see the directory level at which you are currently positioned in your directory 
tree, use the command: 

CD 

To change to a different current directory, you tell the system which directory is 
to be the current one. For example, when you did a DIR command on dfO:, you 
saw an entry for c(dir). If you want that directory to become the current one, you 
issue the command: 

CDC 

Now when you issue the command D(R, it shows the contents of this level of the 
filing system. The command CD alone shows you the name of your current 
directory. You go up to the root directory by specifying: 

CD: 

to go up to the root level on the current volume if you refer to your diskettes by 
volume name (make sure you leave a space before the colon). Or you can 
specify: 

CD dfO: 

to go to the root volume on the built-in disk drive. 

To move up one level in the directory structure (e.g. , to go from a subdirectory to 
the root directory), enter: 

CD/ 

Later in this chapter, you'll see how to create new directories with the MAKED1R 
command. 

AmigaDOS and the CLI 7- 1 3 



Setting the Date and Time 

You can set the AmigaDOS clock by using the DATE command. Enter the date 
in the format DD-MMM-YY (two digits for date, three letters for month, and 
two digits for year). Enter the time in the format HH:MM:SS, with seconds being 
optional. Try an example of setting the clock: 

DATE 12:00:00 01 -apr-87 

If you just enter DATE with no additional information, the current values for 
date and time are returned. 

Now the system clock counts up from this time and date. Load the clock tool 
from Workbench now to check the new time setting. Remember to click in the 
CLI window to activate it after you remove the clock by clicking on its quit 
gadget. 



Redirecting the Output of a Command 



To try this command, insert your Workbench disk into drive 0. 

Normally, the output of all commands goes to the screen. You can change where 
the system puts the output by using the redirect command, >. We've already 
used this command, to redirect the date ouput into a file to demonstrate the 
PROTECT command. 

The > symbol tells AmigaDOS to send the output toward the output file name. 
Here's an example: 

DATE > datefile 

(Make sure you leave one space before and after the > symbol when you type 
this command.) 

Execute this command, so you can use the datefile in the next example. 

This command creates (or overwrites, if the file already exists) a file named 
"datefile" in your current directory. 



7-14 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



Or, just to have something on the disk you formatted and named MyDisk, type 
the following: 

DATE > MyDisk:datefile 

AmigaDOS prompts you to insert the volume by that name (MyDisk). 




Once the activity light goes out, remove MyDisk and reinsert your Workbench 
disk. Now issue the command: 

D1R MyDisk: 

You're again prompted to insert this other disk into any drive. AmigaDOS lists 
the directory of this disk, which now contains a file named "datefile." Replace 
your Workbench disk in the drive. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-15 



Typing a Textfile to the Screen 

You can see what's in a textfile by entering the command TYPE, followed by the 

name of the file you want to view. For example, to see what's contained in the 
file we just created, type the following: 

TYPE datefile 

which displays whatever you have in the file. 



■Htrktnrii Scphii 




. alrl 








UBsiK 




1) DUE ) HyDislcdatefile 
I) DIR KyDisk: 
Tnshcan (dip) 
dattfiU 
1) lYPEditcfile 
Hwtossday 8l-»pp-87 12:91:89 
»■ 


Trashcan.info 


e 


■oMflilESZSSH 


_ 






rirB 


^mt-' 


Mri 







If you wish to verify that your other diskette also has the datefile contents on it, 
you can issue the command: 

TYPE MyDisk:datefile 

Remember to change back to your Workbench diskette after you try this. 



Changing the Name of a File 

You can change the name of a file by using the RENAME command. To change 
the name of a file, you must specify the file you are renaming, and the new name 
you want to give that file. To change the name of datefile to today, type either: 

RENAME FROM datefile TO today 

or 

7- 1 6 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



RENAME datefile today 

Use TYPE to check that the new name refers to the same file contents as you had 
seen previously: 

TYPE today 




Notice that the alternate form of the command doesn't require you to use FROM 
and TO, but still executes the command the same way. 

Most of the AmigaDOS commands have an alternate form. In this chapter, the 
longer form has been used primarily to introduce you to what the command does. 



Deleting Files 

To try this command, place your Workbench disk in drive 0. 

You may be working on several versions of a program or textfile, and wish to 
delete earlier versions of that file, or want to get rid of files you don't need 
anymore. The DELETE command lets you erase files and gives the space back to 
AmigaDOS. 

NOTE: If you delete files, it is not possible to retrieve them. Be certain that you 
really want to delete them. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7- 1 7 



Here is a sample command sequence, which creates a file using the redirection 
command (>), types it to the screen to see that the file is really there, then 
deletes the file. 

DIR > stuff 
TYPE stuff 
DELETE stuff 
TYPE stuff 

To the final command in the above sequence, AmigaDOS responds: 

Can't Open stuff 

indicating that the file named stuff can't be found, because you deleted it. 



Copying Files 

You can copy files with one disk drive or two. On a single disk system, it's a 
little more complex. 

To copy single files, you must copy certain files from your system disk (Work- 
bench) into the system memory. This is called using the RAM: device, often 
known as a RAM disk. 

You copy certain files to the RAM disk, change your directory to the RAM disk, 
then copy from the RAM disk onto the destination disk. Here is a sample 
sequence: 

COPY dfO:c/C DRAM: 
COPY dfO:c/COPY RAM: 
CD RAM: 

Insert the source data disk into the drive. For this example, we'll copy something 
from the Workbench disk, which is already in the drive. 

Issue the command: 

COPYdfO:c/EXECUTE RAM:EXECUTE 

Remove the source disk, and insert the destination disk into the drive. 



7-18 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



Issue the command: 

COPY RAM:EXECUTE dfO:EXECUTE 

Remove the destination disk, and insert your Workbench disk into the drive 
again. Issue the command: 

CD dfO: 

and you are back where you started. The only other command you may want to 
perform is: 

DELETE RAM:CD RAM:COPY RAM:EXECUTE 

which returns the RAM disk memory to the system for other uses. 

Copying files using two drives is much less complicated: 

COPY FROM dfO:sourcepath TO df1 :destinationpath 

or 

COPY dfO.sourcepath df1 :destinationpath 



Creating a New Directory 

You can create a new directory (or new drawer) in whatever current directory 
you are working in with the MAKEDIR command: 

MAKEDIR newdrawer 

Now, if you issue the DIR command, you'll see there is an entry for: 

newdrawer (dir) 

The RENAME command can also be used to move a file from one directory 
(drawer) to another on the same disk: 

MAKEDIR newdrawer 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-19 



RENAME FROM today TO newd rawer/tod ay 

moves the file from the current directory into the newdrawer you have created. 
To see that it's really been moved, issue the command: 

DIR 

and it isn't there. Then issue the command: 

DIR newdrawer 

and AmigaDOS looks in the newdrawer, and shows you that the file named 
"today" is there. 



Is My File Somewhere on This Disk? 

To try this command, your copy of Workbench should be in drive 0. 

Sometimes you'll want to look at everything on the disk, instead of one directory 
at a time. You can use the DIR command with one of its options: 

DIR OPT A 

which lists all directories and sub-directories on the disk. 

To get a closer look at it, you might redirect the output to a file: 

DIR>MyDiskDirOPT A 

Notice that the redirect-the-output character came before the list of options for 
the DIR command. 

Now, if you wish, you could TYPE the file MyDiskDir. Touch the space bar to 

pause the listing and press the Return key to resume the listing, or you can use 
the AmigaDOS screen editor (ED) to view the file. 

Let's use ED: 

ED MyDiskDir 



7-20 AmigaDOS and the CL1 




Use the cursor keys to move up and down in the file. 

Use the key combination ESC then T, followed by Return to move to the top of 
the file. 

Use the key combination ESC then B, followed by Return to move to the bottom 
of the file. 

Use the key combination ESC then M then a number, followed by Return to 
move to a specific line number within the file. 

Use the key combination ESC then Q, followed by Return to quit, or ESC then X . 
followed by Return to write any changes to the file back into the original file 
name. 

Appendix B contains a listing of all the ED screen editing commands. 



Using the RAM Disk 

The RAM disk is a special storage area, which you can "turn on" to hold 
programs, tools, and other forms of information temporarily. RAM stands for 
Random Access Memory, which is memory that you can both read information 
from and write information to, while the computer is operating. The RAM disk is 
used just like a disk in a disk drive; you can load things from and save things to 
the RAM disk. The advantage of a RAM disk is speed — it's much faster than 
accessing a disk from the disk drive. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-21 



One way to activate the RAM disk is by issuing the command: 

DIR RAM: 

Remember to include the colon after RAM when you type in the command. 

The disk drive light goes on when you press Return to issue the command. When 
the light goes out, drag or resize the CLI window to reveal the upper right corner 
of the Workbench screen, where the disk icons usually appear. 

Notice there's a new icon there, for the RAM Disk. Open the RAM disk icon as 
you would open the Workbench disk icon. 

A window comes up for the RAM disk. There's nothing in the window, since 
you haven't put anything there — yet. Notice that the window for the RAM disk 
comes up exactly where the Workbench window is. Drag the RAM disk window 
so you can get the icons in the Workbench window. 

Now drag Notepad (or the tool of your choice) into the RAM disk window. The 
tool is duplicated and the icon is reproduced in the RAM disk. 

Now open the tool from the RAM disk window. Notice how quickly the tool is 
loaded and ready to use. 

If you want to use CLI (rather than Workbench) to access the tool in RAM 
remember to specify RAM in the path name, or you will be using the original 
version of the tool instead of the copy in the RAM disk. 

The RAM disk is as large as it needs to be; the more tools and information you 
place in it, the larger it gets. However, try not to put more than you will actually 
use in the RAM disk, since the memory for the RAM disk is taken from the 
system, and the loss of memory available to the system slows down the Amiga's 
operation. Basically, the larger the RAM disk, the less memory there is for 
running things. 

To delete anything from the RAM disk, use the CLI command DELETE. For 
example, 

DELETE RAM:Notepad 

and 

DELETE RAM:Notepad.info 

7-22 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



will remove Notepad from the RAM disk. 

The RAM disk stays activated until the Amiga is turned off or reset. 

Changing the Startup-Sequence 

When you power up or reset the Amiga, CLI issues a series of commands to set 
up the screen. This is known as the Startup-Sequence. If you feel comfortable 
using CLI, you can change the Startup-Sequence to suit your needs. For exam- 
ple, you might find it convenient if the Amiga started up with the RAM disk 
already activated, and perhaps a tool loaded into RAM. 

Note: If you change the Startup-Sequence, make sure you are changing a copy of 
Workbench, and not the original Workbench disk. This operation is not recom- 
mended for someone who does not really understand using CLI. 

From the CLI window, issue the command: 

ED s/Startup-Sequence 

This loads the Startup-Sequence for the screen editor. The commands for using 
the screen editor are listed in Appendix B. Any changes you make to the Startup- 
Sequence are carried out each time the Amiga is booted up. So, to create a RAM 
disk automatically when the Amiga boots up, type: 

DIR RAM: 

after the echo "Use Preferences tool to set date" line. 

To add a tool, use the CLI copy command to create that particular tool and assign 
it to the RAM disk. 

When you now reset the Amiga, there will be a RAM disk icon along with the 
Workbench disk icon. To remove the RAM disk icon and have the Amiga boot 
up normally, you need only re-enter the screen editor for the Startup-Sequence 
and delete the line DIR RAM: (and any other changes that refer to the RAM disk) 
you added to the Startup-Sequence. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-23 



Setting the Real Time Clock 

The Amiga 2000 has a battery backed up Real Time Clock. This clock is 
different from the Clock tool in Workbench (the system clock). Once set, this 
clock keeps the actual time continuously, and operates even when the Amiga is 
off. 

You set the time for the Real Time Clock from CLI, using the SetClock 
command. Typically, you only need to set the time once, using the Save option 
of this command. You can also load the time from the Real Time Clock into the 
system clock with the Load option of SetClock. This can be done automatically 
by changing the Startup-Sequence. 

To set the Real Time Clock (assuming you want to set it for July 14th, at 12:18 
p.m.), type the following: 

DATE 14-jul-87 12:18 
SETCLOCK OPT SAVE 

To load the system time from the real time clock (so the system clock has the real 
time), add the following to the Startup-Sequence: 

SETCLOCK OPT LOAD 



Creating a New CLI Window 

AmigaDOS is multitasking, meaning it can do more than one thing at a time. 
You can have multiple windows open at once, each having its own current 
directory and executing its own separate command. You can create a new CLI by 
using the NEWCLI command. 

NEWCLI 

This opens a separate window, with a prompt that shows which process it's 
operating as (i.e., which number window it is). For example, if the first window 
had a 1> prompt, then the new CLI window may have a 2> prompt. 



7-24 AmigaDOS and the CLI 




You can move this new window around, make it bigger and smaller and so on. 



Hm CM task 2 
J) | 



1) DIR ) KyDisftDir OFT A 
1) ED HyDisrkOip 

1) HEHCM 
1>I 



To issue commands to the new CLI, click within its window to "activate" it. 
Now anything you type goes to the window you most recently clicked the 
selection button in. Try the following: Click in window 1, and type: 

DIR dfO:c 

Quickly click in window 2, and type: 

INFO 

Both CLI's will work at the same time to fulfill your requests. This demonstrates 
the multi-tasking capability of the Amiga. Notice that you aren't limited to only 
two CLI's, but you are able, if there is available memory, to open several of 
them. 



AmigaDOS and the CLI 7-25 



Closing CLI 

You finish with CLI and delete its window with the ENDCLI command. 

Click the selection (left) button of the mouse in the window for the CLI you wish 
to close, and type: 

ENDCLI 

That's all there is to it. 
Changing the Startup Sequence 



Closing Comments 

The series of command descriptions in this chapter is intended to give you a 
flavor of the kinds of things you can do with AmigaDOS and how to use the 
CLI. It is by no means a complete tutorial on either AmigaDOS or CLI. There 
are many CLI commands which haven't been covered here at all. Appendix B 
lists the available CLI commands as well as the ED commands and AmigaDOS 
error messages. 

Most of the commands have other "templates" (alternate form in which to enter 
the commands) and options that haven't been demonstrated here. If you're 
interested in using CLI more extensively, we highly recommend purchasing The 
AmigaDOS Manual from Bantam Books, for complete tutorial and reference 
information on AmigaDOS and CLI. 

The material in this chapter is adapted from THE AMIGADOS MANUAL, 2nd 
edition, Commodore Capital, Inc., used by permission of Bantam Books, Inc., 
666 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10103. All rights reserved. 



7-26 AmigaDOS and the CLI 



Chapter 8 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 



Precautions for Peripherals 8-3 
Using the Internal Expansion Slots 8-4 
Adding Internal Memory to the Amiga 8-4 
Adding a Bridgeboard PC/XT Emulator 8-5 
Adding Floppy Disk Drives 8-5 
Adding a Hard Disk Drive 8-6 
Adding Printers 8-6 
Adding a Modem 8-8 
Other Peripherals 8-8 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 8- 



There are many ways you can add to your Amiga. You can make it more powerful by 
adding memory or additional disk drives, including hard disks. You can even add 
the ability to run IBM PC XT compatible programs. Tools for business and 
entertainment let you use your Amiga in new and exciting ways. 

To print your projects, you can choose from many printers, including color printers. 
A modem can connect your Amiga to the outside world via normal phone lines. 
Other peripheral add-ons enhance the Amiga picture. 

In this chapter, you'll get a quick look at some currently available peripherals. 
Complete instructions for installing and using these add-ons are included with the 
peripherals. For more information, and for many peripherals not described here, 
see your Amiga dealer. 



Precautions for Peripherals 

When attaching any peripheral, use only the proper cables. Using a cable that 
is not properly wired may damage the peripheral and your Amiga. 

If you wish to adapt cables for use with the Amiga, see Appendix A, "Technical 
Reference," for information about the proper connections. 

Before you attach a cable to any of the connectors on the back of the main unit, 
turn off the Amiga. Attaching a cable when the Amiga is turned on may reset the 
Amiga. 

When using cables to attach any peripherals, including printers, be sure that the 
cables are shielded. Using unshielded cables can cause interference to radio and 
television reception. See the statement on the inside front cover for more 
information about how to prevent and correct interference. 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 8-3 



Using the Internal Expansion Slots 

The Amiga 2000 has internal slots which are used to install additional peripher- 
als. You can get an Amiga with peripherals already installed using these slots, or 
you can have these slots available for options you want to add later. The Amiga 
2000 has internal slots for both Amiga and IBM-PC compatible peripheral cards. 



PC-XT 

Expansion 

Slots 

PC-AT 

Expansion 

Slots 

Amiga 

Expansion 

Slots 




Adding Internal Memory to the Amiga 

You can easily increase the random-access memory of your Amiga. With the 
additional memory, you can: 

• work on several programs at a time 

• work on extremely large files in a word processor, spreadsheet or 
database 

• save your favorite commands to a RAM disk, which you can set up to 
run automatically when the system is booted 

You can add a memory expansion card or cards to increase the 1 MB of memory 
the Amiga 2000 already has by as much as eight megabytes. RAM expansion 
memory cards can give you a half, one, two, four, six, or eight megabytes of 
additional RAM. The cards plug into any of the five 100-pin expansion slots. 



8^4- Adding to the Amiga 2000 



Adding a Bridgeboard PC-XT Emulator 

One of the most useful cards available for the Amiga 2000 is the PC emulator 
card, also known as the Bridgeboard. In effect, this card adds another "side" to 
your computer, making it into an IBM-PC XT as well as an Amiga. 

As its name suggests, the Bridgeboard plugs into two slots on the main computer 
board, forming a bridge between the Amiga and PC sides. The Amiga 2000 with 
the PC emulator option comes with a Bridgeboard already installed, and an 
internal 5.25" floppy disk drive. Also included is a special version of Workbench 
which contains programs to set up the PC display and assign the parallel port for 
use with a PC printer. You boot up your Amiga from Workbench as usual, and 
then click on an icon to load a PC display. 

Software programs written for the IBM-PC can be run on the Amiga 2000 with 
the Bridgeboard option. With the Bridgeboard option, you can also use internal 
cards, and PC-compatible peripherals, such as printers, external drives, and 
monitors. Even with the PC option installed, you can still run all the Amiga 
software on the Amiga side. 



Adding Floppy Disk Drives 

You can add both 3-1/2" microdisk drives and 5-1/4" floppy disk drives to your 
Amiga 2000. 

The Amiga 3.5 Disk Drive (Model 1010, external; Model 2010, internal) is 
identical in storage capacity and performance to the disk drive built into the 
Amiga. To attach the external model of this drive, you simply plug it into the 
external disk connector on the back of the Amiga. To attach the internal model, 
follow the instructions packed with the drive or have your dealer install it. Added 
disk drives make performing many disk operations, such as copying disks, much 
easier and faster. 

The Amiga External 5-1/4" Disk Drive (Model 1020, external; Model 2020, 
internal) can also be used as an external storage device. This device can work in 
both AmigaDOS and MS-DOS formats. Utilities that allow you to use this drive 
are included on the Amiga Extras disk. It can also be used with the Amiga 
Bridgecard peripheral, described previously. Instructions for installing these 
drives are included with the unit. 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 8-5 



When using 5-1/4" disks on an Amiga, a system requester may appear that asks 
you to insert a disk. Unlike the 3.5" disks, the Amiga cannot detect when you 
insert a 5-1/4" disk. Once you have inserted the disk, you must enter the 
AmigaDOS Diskchange command, followed by the name of the disk drive, for 
the Amiga to recognize the disk. (For more details, see the AmigaDOS Manual 
published by Bantam Books.) 



Adding a Hard Disk Drive 

Also available for the Amiga is the SCSI Interface, a high-speed parallel connec- 
tor that is compatible with both ST 506 and SCSI type hard disk drives. Many 
companies today are making SCSI compatible hard disk drives. This is the 
quickest and easiest way to add up to 120MB of hard disk storage. There are 
other SCSI peripherals available, such as up to 80 tape streamers for hard disk 
backup and laser printers. 

(Instructions for installing a hard disk drive should be packed with the unit. 
Appendix G gives the general installation procedure and tells how to initialize 
and partition a hard disk drive.) 



Printers for the Amiga 



Examples of printers you can use with an Amiga are: 

• Dot Matrix: Epson® FX-80™ and RX-80™, Apple® ImageWriter™, 
Commodore® MPS 1000™ and MPS 1250™ printers. 

These dot matrix printers can produce both text and monochrome 
graphics. 

• Daisy Wheel: Alphacom® Alphapro 101™, Brotherr® HR15-XL™, 
Diablo® Advantage D25™, Diablo 630™, and Qume LetterPro 20™ 
letter-quality printers. 

These print text of comparable quality to that produced by high- 
quality typewriters. However, they are slower than most dot matrix 
printers and cannot print graphics. 



8-6 Adding to the Amiga 2000 



• Color Dot Matrix: Okimate® 20"', Epson JX-80™ and Juki® 
5510™ color printers. To use the Okimate 20 with the Amiga, you 
also need an Okidata "Plug 'n Print" cartridge that connects the 
printer to the parallel port of the Amiga. 

These printers can produce color images from the Amiga, including 
pictures created with software graphics packages. 

• Color Ink Jet: Xerox® 4020™ color printer. 

This type of printer uses advanced ink-jet technology to produce 
high-quality color images. 

• Okidata® Microline™ series printers. 

The models 92 and 192 are available in two versions: a standard 
version and a version compatible with IBMr dot matrix printers. 

To use the standard version, select Okidata 92 from the list of printer 
choices in Preferences. To use the IBM compatible version, select 
CBM MPS 1000 from the list. The Microline 292 can be used with 
two different personality cards: one that makes it compatible with 
IBM printers and another that, when used with a different ribbon, lets 
you print in color. To use the Microline 292 as an IBM compatible 
printer, select CBM MPS 1000 from the list of printers in Prefer- 
ences. 

To use the Microline 292 as a color printer, select Epson JX-80 from 
the list. 

• Laser Printers: Hewlett-Packard® LaserJet™ and LaserJet PLUS™ 
laser printers. 

These printers can produce high-quality, professional quality print. 

You use the Preferences tool (described in Chapter 6) to tell the Amiga which 
printer you're using and to change a number of settings that affect printers. 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 8-7 



Adding a Modem 

The Amiga 1680 Modem 1200/RS"' lets you telecommunicate with your Amiga 
over regular phone lines. The 1680 Modem utilizes the popular Hayes protocol to 
perform data transfers and access information networks. 

A modem also gives your Amiga access to public domain software on electronic 
bulletin boards (BB's) and information services. 

The Amiga 1680 Modem 1200/RS supports a standard RS232 interface, which 
means it can also be used with most other computers which use an RS232 serial 
port, such as the IBM PC and compatibles. 



Other Peripherals 

There are many other hardware add-ons that can greatly enhance the function of 
your Amiga. A MIDI Interface gives the computer the ability to control musical 
instruments, such as synthesizers, and to digitize sound. A MIDI interface 
enables your Amiga to control several instruments at one time, to produce studio- 
like effects. Some MIDI interface connectors can connect to parallel ports. MID! 
interface connectors are available from many sources. 

The Amiga can display on RGB monitors, composite monitors, monochrome 
monitors and even television sets. The monitor you use depends on your needs 
for picture display. You can get a modulator/composite video interface that plugs 
into the Amiga's RGB video port which allows you to connect a Commodore 
1702 or comparable composite color monitor or a television. 

Still other available Amiga peripherals allow you to digitize the Amiga picture, 
connect to different networks, or add a graphics tablet. And the list is still 
growing! When you're ready to expand your Amiga system, visit your Amiga 
dealer for the latest in peripherals. 



8-8 Adding to the Amiga 2000 




Connecting a parallel 
printer 




Connecting a 3V2-inch disk 

drive 




Connecting an Amiga 1680 
modem 

(A 1680 modem may not 

be approved by local 

authorities in all countries.) 

This port is also used to 
connect a serial printer. 



Adding to the Amiga 2000 8-9 



Chapter 9 



Caring for the Amiga 2000 



Amiga Precautions 9-3 



Cleaning the Mouse 9-4 



Taking Care of Disks 9-6 

Radio and Television Interference 9-7 



Caring for the Arnica 2000 9-1 



Your Amiga 2000 needs very little care to keep it working at its best. Observe the 
precautions in this chapter to keep your Amiga in top shape. 



Amiga Precautions 

Opening the case. Open the case only to insert/remove peripheral expansion 
hardware. If your Amiga needs service, bring it to an approved Amiga Service 
Center. Attempting to service the Amiga on your own will void the warranty on 
your Amiga. 

Keep the Amiga dry. Keep liquids away from the Amiga as you work. An 
accidental spill can seriously damage the Amiga. 

Keep the Amiga out of direct sunlight. If the case gets too hot, the Amiga 
won't work reliably. Moreover, temperatures above 140 degrees Fahrenheit (60 
degrees Celsius) can damage the Amiga's internal components. Keep it coo). 

Keep connectors and the ends of cables clean. Food, especially sticky food, is 
the worst offender. Any substance that adheres to connectors or the ends of 
cables can prevent a good electrical connection or, worse, damage the connector. 

Keep magnets away from the monitor, all components of the computer 
setup. Note that magnets can damage information on disks. Be sure to read 
"Taking Care of Disks" at the end of this chapter. Although magnets won't 
damage the monitor, they can distort the video display. In addition to more 
obvious magnets, beware of magnets in telephones, loudspeakers, and electric 
motors. 

Use the mouse on a clean surface. The ball on the bottom of the mouse must be 
clean to work properly. If the mouse behaves erratically, it may need cleaning. 
The next section tells how to clean your mouse. 



Caring for the Amiga 2000 9-3 



Cleaning the Mouse 

To keep the mouse working properly, give it an occasional cleaning. 
To clean the mouse, you'll need: 

• a soft, dry, lint-free cloth 

• alcohol or head cleaning fluid for tape recorders 

• cotton swabs 

Cleaning the mouse takes just a couple of minutes. Here's how you do it: 

Turn the mouse upside down with its cable toward you. Hold the mouse in 
both hands and remove the cover surrounding the mouse ball. 

Put your hand over the opening, turn the mouse upside down, and catch the ball: 




9-4 Caring for the Amiga 2000 



In the opening, you'll see three small metal rollers. Moisten a cotton swab with 
alcohol or head cleaning fluid and gently swab the surface of each roller. Turn 
each roller as you swab to clean it all the way around. 

With the cloth, wipe off the mouse ball. (Don't use any liquid when cleaning the 
mouse ball.) When you're done, blow gently into the opening to remove any 
dust, replace the ball, and slide the cover for the ball back into place. 



Caring for the Amiga 2000 9-5 



Taking Care of Disks 

To protect the information on your disks, observe these precautions: Never 
remove a disk from a disk drive when the disk drive light is on. The disk 
drive light tells you that the Amiga is using a disk. Taking a disk out too soon 
may ruin the information on the disk. 

Keep disks away from magnets. Microdisks, like audio tapes, store informa- 
tion magnetically. Magnets can ruin the information on a disk. In addition to 
more obvious magnets, beware of magnets in telephones, loudspeakers, and 
electric motors. 

Keep disks dry and away from extreme heat or cold. Microdisks are comfort- 
able at about the same temperatures you are. Don't leave disks in direct sunlight, 
near heat sources, or in cars parked in the sun. 

Don't touch the surface of the disk. A microdisk's metal cover closes automati- 
cally whenever you remove the disk from a disk drive. Don't touch the surface of 
the disk underneath the cover. 

Make copies of important disks. The best insurance for the information on a 
disk is to make a copy of the disk and keep the copy in a safe place. Make a habit 
of copying an important disk each time you finish working with it. 



9-6 Caring for the Amiga 2000 



Radio and Television Interference 



Your Amiga generates and uses radio frequency energy. If it not installed and 
used properly, that is, in strict accordance with the instructions in this manual, it 
may cause interference to radio and television reception. The Amiga has been 
certified to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device, pursuant to 
subpart J of Part 15 of the Federal Communication Commission's rules, which 
are designed to provide reasonable protection against radio and television inter- 
ference in a residential installation. If you suspect interference, you can test the 
Amiga by turning it off and on. If the Amiga does cause interference, try the 
following: 

• Reorient the antenna or AC plug on the radio or television. 

• Change the relative positions of the Amiga and the radio or televi- 
sion. 

• Move the Amiga farther away from the radio or television. 

• Plug either the Amiga or the radio or television into a different outlet 
so that the Amiga and the radio or television are on different circuits. 

Use only shield-grounded cables when connecting peripherals (computer input- 
output devices, terminals, printers, etc.) to the Amiga. 

All peripherals must be certified to comply with Class B limits. 

Operation with non-certified peripherals is likely to result in interference to radio 
and television reception. 

Your house AC wall receptacle must be a three-pronged type (AC ground). If 
not, contact an electrician to install the proper receptacle. 

If a multi-connector box is used to connect the computer and peripherals to AC, 
the ground must be common to all units. 

If necessary, consult your Amiga dealer or an experienced radio-television 
technician for additional suggestions. You may find the following FCC booklet 
helpful: "How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems." The 
booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, stock no. 004-000-00345-4. 



Caring for the Amiga 2000 9-7 



Appendix A 



_ Technical Reference 



Amiga 2000 Technical Specifications 
Input/ Output Connectors 
Mouse/ Game Controller Connectors 
Custom Chips 



Technical Reference A-l 



This appendix includes the technical specifications for the Amiga 2000, the electri- 
cal characteristics of the input/output connectors and the mouse/ game controller 
connectors, and custom chip diagrams and features. 



Amiga 2000 Technical Specifications 



CPU: 

Clock Speed: 
Co-Processors: 

Memory: 



ROM: 

Interfaces: 



System Slots: 



Video Slot: 

Power Supply: 
Keyboard: 



Motorola 68000, 16/32 Bit 

7.14 MHz 

3 chip co-processor system for DMA, video, 

graphics and sound 

1 M RAM standard; externally expandable up to an 

additional 8 MB (with AutoConfig feature), total 

maximum 9 MB 

256KB 

Keyboard 

Mouse/Joystick (2); one also for Lightpen 

Serial (RS 232, IBM-PC compatible) 

Parallel (Centronics, IBM-PC compatible) 

Video (RGB analog) 

Stereo Audio 

External Disk Drives 

AMIGA CPU bus: 

1 slot (86 pin) for CPU extensions 
AMIGA system bus: 

5 slots (100 pin) with AutoConfig feature 
Secondary Bus System: 

2 slots IBM PC/AT compatible (full size) 
2 slots IBM PC compatible (full size) 

Total number of slots: 7 (2 slots are combined 
AMIGA-IBM PC/AT positions) 
1 video slot for internal NTSC/PAL coder for 
composite video, internal genlock, etc. 
200 watts 
Detachable 
U.S. version: 94 keys 
International version: 96 keys 
Includes: 10 function keys, separate numeric key- 
pad, separate cursor keys (reverse T' layout), help 
key 



Technical Reference 



A-3 



Mouse: 
Disk Drives: 



External Disk Drives: 



Video Display: 



Optomechanical, two button system 
Mounting locations for: 
2 drives 3 V2" 

1 drive 5'/>" (half height) 

Standard: built-in 3W floppy disk drive 

(capacity: 880 KB formatted) 

Optional: 

Second floppy disk drive V/i 

Floppy disk drive 5 ] A" (half height, for use with 

Bridgeboard) 

Hard disk drive V/2" (with controller board) 

Hard disk drive 5 ] A" (half height, with controller 

board) 

Capacity of HDD up to 120 MB 

2 AMIGA floppy disk drives 
(A 1010: y/2, A 1020: 5V4') 

3 floppy disk drives (MS-DOS formatted, if 
Bridgeboard is installed) 

U.S.: 

525 lines/vertical frequency 60 Hz 

International version: 

625 lines/vertical frequency 50 Hz 

Graphic co-processor with draw, fill and 

move modes 

Maximum 512 KB video memory (chip 

memory) 

Palette of 4096 colors, max. 6 bitplanes, 

8 sprites per scanline, bit blitter 

Text Modes: 

Standard modes: 80 Characters/25 lines 

60 characters/25 lines 
International: 80 characters/32 lines 

60 characters/32 lines 
Different font sizes and font types select- 
able, screen colors user definable. 
Graphic Modes: 

—320 x 200 pixels, palette of 32 colors 
out of 4096, palette switchable on the 
scanline, no interlace (International: 320 
x 256 pixels) 

— 640 x 200 pixels, palette of 32 colors 
out of 4096, palette switchable on the 
scanline, no interlace (International: 640 
x 256 pixels) 



A^ 



Technical Reference 



Sound: 



Clock/Calendar-Function: 
Speech: 



System Software: 



MS-DOS Compatibility: 

Power: 

Included Items: 



Accessories from 
Commodore: 



— 320 x 400 pixels, palette of 32 colors 
out of 4096, palette switchable on the 
scanline, interlace (International: 320 x 
512 pixels) 

— 640 x 400 pixels, palette of 16 colors 
out of 4096, palette switchable on the 
scanline, interlace (International: 640 x 
512 pixels) 

4 independent sound channels configured 
as two stereo channels 
Reproduces complex waveforms 
Sound buffer up to 400 KB nominal, 512 
KB maximum 
8 bit D/A conversion 
Low pass filter (7.5 kHz, 12 dB/Octave) 
Built-in, with battery back-up 
Built-in English text-to-speech device 
Controls for rate, pitch, volume, inflec- 
tion and sex of voice 
Provides multitasking. Includes Amiga- 
DOS; WORKBENCH, window oriented 
user interface; CLI command line inter- 
preter; AmigaBASIC from Microsoft 
(supports graphic, sound and window fea- 
tures of the machine) 
With Bridgeboard (XT level compatibil- 
ity) 

U.S.: 110 Volts/60 Hz 
International: 220-240 Volts/50 Hz 
Keyboard, mouse, power cable, Introduc- 
tion manual, AmigaBasic manual, system 
software WORKBENCH, AmigaBASIC 
and utilities on two VA" floppy disks. 

Color Monitor A 2002 (RGB and com- 
posite video selectable) 
Color Monitor A 2080 (long persistence) 
External Floppy Disk Drive 3Vi" A 1010 
External Floppy Disk Drive 5 ] A" A 1020 
Modem (Hayes compatible) A 1680 
Bridgeboard A 2088 (XT compatible) 
2 MB RAM Expansion Board A 2052 
Hard Disk/SCSI Controller Board A 2090 
(for AMIGA bus) 



Technical Reference 



A-5 



Input/Output Connectors 



This section lists pin assignments for several inputVoutput connectors on the 
Amiga. The information in this section is highly technical and is intended only 
for those expert in connecting external devices to computers. You do not need 
this information if you use a cable specifically designed for use with the Amiga 
and the add-on you want to connect. 

For information about connectors not described in this section, see the Amiga 
Hardware Manual. 

If you attach peripherals with cables other than those designed for use with the 
Amiga, note: some pins on Amiga connectors provide power outputs and 
non-standard signals. Attempting to use cables not wired specifically for the 
Amiga may cause damage to the Amiga or to the equipment you connect. 

The descriptions below include specific warnings for each connector. For more 
information about connecting add-ons, consult your Amiga dealer. 

In the descriptions that follow, an asterisk (*) at the end of a signal name 
indicates a signal that is active low. 



A-6 Technical Reference 



Serial Connector 

In the following table, the second column from the left gives the Amiga pin 
assignments. The third and fourth columns from the left give pin assignments for 
other commonly used connections; the information in these two columns is given 
for comparison only. 








WARNING: Pins 9 and 10 on the Amiga serial connector are used for 
external power. Connect these pins ONLY if power from them is required 
by the external device. The table lists the power provided by each of these pins. 





Amiga 








Pin 


2000 


RS232 


HAYES® 


Description 


1 


SHIELD 


GND 


GND 


SHIELD 


2 


TXD 


TXD 


TXD 


TRANSMIT DATA 


3 


RXD 


RXD 


RXD 


RECEIVE DATA 


4 


RTS 


RTS 




REQUEST TO SEND 


5 


CTS 


CTS 


CTS 


CLEAR TO SEND 


6 


DSR 


DSR 


DSR 


DATA SET READY 


7 


GND 


GND 


GND 


SYSTEM GROUND 


8 


DCD 


DCD 


DCD 


CARRIER DETECT 


9 


+ 12V 






+ 12 VOLT CARRIER 


10 


-12V 






-12 VOLT CARRIER 


11 


AUDO 






AUDIO OUT OF AMIGA 


12 




S.SD 


SI 


SPEED INDICATE 


13 




S.CTS 






14 




S.TXD 






15 




TXC 






16 




S.RXD 






17 




RXC 






18 


AUDI 






AUDIO INTO AMIGA 


19 




S.RTS 






20 


DTR 


DTR 


DTR 


DATA TERMINAL READY 


21 




SQD 






22 


RI 


RI 


RI 


RING INDICATOR 


23 




SS 






24 




TXC1 






25 











Technical Reference 



A-7 



Parallel Connector 





WARNING: Pin 14 on the Amiga parallel connector supplies +5 volts of 
power. Connect this pin ONLY if the power from it is required by the 
external device. NEVER connect this pin to an output of an external device 
or to a signal ground. Pins 17-25 are for grounding signals. DO NOT 
connect these pins directly to a shield ground. 



Pin 


Name 


Description 


1 


STROBE* 


STROBE 


2 


DO 


DATA BIT 

(Least sign, bit) 


3 


Di 


DATA BIT 1 


4 


D2 


DATA BIT 2 


5 


D3 


DATA BIT 3 


6 


D4 


DATA BIT 4 


7 


D5 


DATA BIT 5 


8 


D6 


DATA BIT 6 


9 


D7 


DATA BIT 7 


10 


ACK* 


ACKNOWLEDGE 


11 


BUSY 


BUSY 


12 


POUT 


PAPER OUT 


13 


SEL 


SELECT 


14 


+ 5V PULLUP 


+ 5 VOLTS POWER (10 mA) 


15 


NC 


NO CONNECTION 


16 


RESET* 


RESET 


17 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


18 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


19 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


20 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


21 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


22 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


23 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


24 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 


25 


GND 


SIGNAL GROUND 



A-8 



Technical Reference 



RGB Monitor Connector 








WARNING: Pins 21, 22, and 23 on the RGB monitor connector are used for 
external power. Connect these pins ONLY if power from them is required 
by the external device. The table lists the power provided by each of these pins. 



Pin 


Name 


Description 


1 


XCLK* 


EXTERNAL CLOCK 


2 


XCLKEN* 


EXTERNAL CLOCK ENABLE 


3 


RED 


ANALOG RED 


4 


GREEN 


ANALOG GREEN 


5 


BLUE 


ANALOG BLUE 


6 


DI 


DIGITAL INTENSITY 


7 


DB 


DIGITAL BLUE 


8 


DG 


DIGITAL GREEN 


9 


DR 


DIGITAL RED 


10 


CSYNC* 


COMPOSITE SYNC 


11 


HSYNC* 


HORIZONTAL SYNC 


12 


VSYNC* 


VERTICAL SYNC 


13 


GNDRTN 


RETURN FOR XCLKEN* 


14 


ZD* 


ZERO DETECT 


15 


CI* 


CLOCK OUT 


16 


GND 


GROUND 


17 


GND 


GROUND 


18 


GND 


GROUND 


19 


GND 


GROUND 


20 


GND 


GROUND 


21 


- 12V 


- 12 VOLTS POWER (50 mA) 


22 


+ 12V 


+ 12 VOLTS POWER (100 mA) 


23 


+ 5V 


+ 5 VOLTS POWER (100 mA) 



Technical Reference 



A- 9 



Mouse/Game Controller Connectors 



The connectors for the mouse, joysticks and light pens are on the front of the 
Amiga 2000. If you use a mouse to control the Workbench, you must attach it to 
connector 1 (the left connector as you face the Amiga). You can attach joystick 
controllers and light pens to either of the connectors. The following tables 
describe mouse, game controller, and light pen connections. 





WARNING: Pin 7 on each of these connectors supplies +5 volts of power. 
Connect this pin ONLY if power from it is required by the external device. 



Connector 1: Mouse 



Pin 


Name 


Description 


1 


MOUSE V 


MOUSE VERTICAL 


2 


MOUSE H 


MOUSE HORIZONTAL 


3 


MOUSE VQ 


VERTICAL QUADRATURE 


4 


MOUSE HQ 


HORIZONTAL QUADRATURE 


5 


MOUSE BUTTON 2 


MOUSE BUTTON 2 


6 


MOUSE BUTTON 1 


MOUSE BUTTON 1 


7 


+ 5V 


+ 5 VOLTS POWER (100 mA) 


8 


GND 


GROUND 


9 


MOUSE BUTTON 3 


MOUSE BUTTON 3 



A- 10 Technical Reference 



Connectors 1 and 2: Game Controller 



Pin 



Name 



Description 



1 


FORWARD* 


CONTROLLER FORWARD 


2 


BACK* 


CONTROLLER BACK 


3 


LEFT* 


CONTROLLER LEFT 


4 


RIGHT* 


CONTROLLER RIGHT 


5 


POTX 


HORIZONTAL POTENTIOMETER 


6 


FIRE* 


CONTROLLER FIRE 


7 


+ 5V 


+ 5 VOLTS POWER (125 mA) 


8 


GND 


GROUND 


9 


POTY 


VERTICAL POTENTIOMETER 



Connectors 1 and 2: Light Pen 



Pin 



Name 



Description 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 


LIGHT PEN PRESS 


LIGHT PEN TOUCHED TO SCREEN 


6 


LIGHT PEN* 


CAPTURE BEAM POSITION 


7 


+ 5V 


+ 5 VOLTS POWER (100 mA) 


8 
9 


GND 


GROUND 



See jumper J200 description at the end of this Appendix to select whether 
connector I or 2 is enabled for light pen use. 



Technical Reference 



A-ll 



External Disk Connector 





Pin 



Name 



Description 



1 


/RDY 


2 


/DKRD 


3-7 


GND 


8 


/MTRXD 


9 


/SEL2B 


10 


/DRESB 


11 


/CHNG 


12 


+ 5 


13 


/SIDEB 


14 


/WPRO 


15 


/TKO 


16 


/DKWE 


17 


/DKWD 


18 


/STEPB 



1 9 



DIRB 



2U 


/SEL3B 


21 


/SELIB 


22 


/INDEX 


23 


+ 12 



Disk Ready— Active Low 

Disk Ready Data — Active Low 

Ground 

Disk Motor Control— Active Low 

Select Drive 2 — Active Low 

Disk RESET— Active Low 

Disk has been Removed from 

Drive — Latched Low 

5 VDC Supply 

Select Disk Side— 0= Upper 

1 = Lower 

Disk is Write Protected— Active 

Low 

Drive Head Position over Track 

O — Active Low 

Disk Write Enable — Active Low 

Disk Write Data — Active Low 

Step the Head— Pulse, First Low 

then High 

Select Head Direction— 0= Inner 

1 = Outer 

Select Drive 3 — Active Low 

Select Drive 1 — Active Low 

Disk Index. Pulse— Active Low 

12 VDC Supply 



A-12 



Technical Reference 



86-Pin Connector 






Pin 


Name 


Pin 


Name 


1 


gnd 


44 


IPL2* 


2 


gnd 


45 


A16 


3 


gnd 


46 


BERR* 


4 


gnd 


47 


A17 


5 


+ 5 


48 


VPA* 


6 


+ 5 


49 


gnd 


7 


exp 


50 


E 


8 


-5 


51 


VMA* 


9 


28 MHz 


52 


A18 


10 


+ 12 


53 


RES* 


11 


COPFG* 


54 


AI9 


12 


CONFIG* 


55 


HLT* 


13 


gnd 


56 


A20 


14 


C3* 


57 


A22 


15 


CDAC 


58 


A21 


16 


CI* 


59 


A23 


17 


OVR* 


60 


CBR* 


18 


XRDY 


61 


gnd 


19 


INT2* 


62 


BGACK* 


20 


BOSS* 


63 


PD15 


21 


A5 


64 


CBG* 


22 


INT6* 


65 


PD14 


23 


A6 


66 


DTACK* 


24 


A4 


67 


PD13 


25 


gnd 


68 


PRW* 


26 


A3 


69 


PD12 


27 


A2 


70 


LDS* 


28 


A7 


71 


PD11 


29 


Al 


72 


UDS* 


30 


A8 


73 


gnd 


31 


FCO 


74 


AS* 


32 


A9 


75 


PD0 


33 


FC1 


76 


PD10 


34 


A10 


77 


PD1 


35 


FC2 


78 


PD9 


36 


All 


79 


PD2 


37 


gnd 


80 


PD8 


38 


A12 


81 


PD3 


39 


A13 


82 


PD7 


40 


IPLO* 


83 


PD4 


41 


A14 


84 


PD6 


42 


IPL1* 


85 


gnd 


43 


A15 


86 


PD5 



Technical Reference 



A-13 



100 


■pin Connector 






Pin 


Signal 


Pin 


Signal 


1 


Ground 


2 


Ground 


3 


Ground 


4 


Ground 


5 


+ 5Vdc 


6 


+ 5Vdc 


7 


/OWN 


8 


-5Vdc 


9 


/SLAVEn 


10 


+ 12Vdc 


11 


/CFGOUTn 


12 


/CFGINn 


13 


Ground 


14 


/C3 Clock 


15 


CDAC Clock 


16 


/CI Clock 


17 


/OVR 


18 


XRDY 


19 


/INT2 


20 


- 12Vdc 


21 


A5 


22 


/INT6 


23 


A6 


24 


A4 


25 


Ground 


26 


A3 


27 


A2 


28 


A7 


29 


Al 


30 


A8 


31 


FCO 


32 


A9 


33 


FC1 


34 


A10 


35 


FC2 


36 


All 


37 


Ground 


38 


A12 


39 


A13 


40 


/EINT7 


41 


A14 


42 


/EINT5 


43 


A15 


44 


/EINT4 


45 


A16 


46 


/BERR 


47 


A17 


48 


/VPA 


49 


Ground 


50 


E Clock 



A- 14 



Technical Reference 



100-pin Connector (continued) 



Pin 



Signal 



Pin 



Signal 



51 


/VMA 


52 


A18 


53 


/RST 


54 


A19 


55 


/HLT 


56 


A20 


57 


A22 


58 


A21 


59 


A23 


60 


/BRn 


61 


Ground 


62 


/BGACK 


63 


D15 


64 


/BGn 


65 


D14 


66 


/DTACK 


67 


D13 


68 


READ 


69 


D12 


70 


/LDS 


71 


Dll 


72 


/UDS 


73 


Ground 


74 


/AS 


75 


DO 


76 


D10 


77 


Dl 


78 


D9 


79 


D2 


80 


D8 


81 


D3 


82 


D7 


83 


D4 


84 


D6 


85 


Ground 


86 


D5 


87 


Ground 


88 


Ground 


89 


Ground 


90 


Ground 


91 


Ground 


92 


7MHz 


93 


DOE 


94 


/BUSRST 


95 


/GBG 


96 


/EINTI 


97 


No Connect 


98 


No Connect 


99 


Ground 


100 


Ground 



Technical Reference 



A-15 



Video Connector 



Pin 


Signal 


Pin 


Signal 


1 


Reserved for Expansion 


2 


Reserved for Expansion 


3 


Left Audio Out 


4 


Right Audio Out 


5 


Reserved for Expansion 


6 


+ 5Vdc 


7 


Analog Red 


8 


+ 5Vdc 


9 


Video Ground 


10 


+ 12Vdc 


11 


Analog Green 


12 


Video Ground 


13 


Video Ground 


14 


/CSYNC 


15 


Analog Blue 


16 


/XCLKEN 


17 


Video Ground 


18 


BURST 


19 


/C4 Clock 


20 


Video Ground 


21 


Video Ground 


22 


/HSYNC (47 Ohm) 


23 


BO = DI (47 Ohm) 


24 


Video Ground 


25 


B3 = DB (47 Ohm) 


26 


/VSYNC (47 Ohm) 


27 


G3 = DG (47 Ohm) 


28 


COMP SYNC (Analog) 


29 


R3 = DR (47 Ohm) 


30 


/PIXELSW (47 Ohm) 


31 


-5Vdc 


32 


Video Ground 


33 


XCLK 


34 


/CI Clock 


35 


Reserved for Expansion 


36 


Reserved for Expansion 



Extended Video Connector 



Pin 


Signal 




Pin 


Signal 


1 


Ground 




2 


R0 


3 


Rl 




4 


R2 


5 


Ground 




6 


GO 


7 


Gl 




8 


G2 


9 


Ground 




10 


Bl 


11 


B2 




12 


Ground 


13 


Composite 


Video 


14 


TBASE 


15 


CDAC Clock 


16 


POUT 


17 


/C3 Clock 




18 


BUSY 


19 


/LPEN 




20 


/ACK 


21 


SEL 




22 


Ground 


23 


PDO 




24 


PD1 


25 


PD2 




26 


PD3 


27 


PD4 




28 


PD5 


29 


PD6 




30 


PD7 


31 


/LED 




32 


Ground 


33 


Raw Audio 


Left 


34 


Audio Ground 


35 


Raw Audio 


Right 


36 


Audio Ground 



A- 16 



Technical Reference 



Custom Animation Chip 

Fat Agnus 



co zr 

□ Q 



© *- <N TO =T If) M X ■ 

ia tfl r- co ai ~ — — — ■* —• v> >- i~ >- » co M£ 



i i i i i i i i i 



RD2 -S 


,..". ',',',' 1 »..».,«»,. 


^vT^^T) 


RD1 -5 






RD0 -5 






ucc -p 




71 c 


RST« -S 






INT3 -S 




11 £ 


OflflL -3 






8LSM -3 




IT C 


DBRw -5 
RRU - 5 
PRU -S 


!■ 8370 


""? 


RGEN* -5 




tt C 


AS* - S 






RAHENx -5 




1 1 f 


R0fi8 -5 






RGB7 -5 




3S f 


RGBS -S 




3 »C 


RGBS -5 


?s 


„, ? 


RGflu -5 






RGB3 -S 






RGB2 -5 








Sn")! J| 36 «l \l \« ' «#** *t** 


J«"j}" ] 





filS 


- 


nm 


- 


A13 


- 


A12 


- 


All 


- 


A10 


- 


A9 


- 


AS 


- 


A? 


- 


AG 


- 


A5 


- 


fiH 


- 


A3 


- 


A2 


- 


Al 


- 


Ai9 


- 


uss 


- 


RAS0« 


- 


RfiSl" 


- 


CASU« 


- 


CASL« 



Features: 

• Bit Blitter— Uses hardware to 
move display data — Allows high 
speed animation — Frees the CPU 
for other concurrent tasks 

• Display Synchronized Coproc- 
essor 

• Controls 25 DMA Channels- 
Allows the disk and sound to 
operate with minimal CPU 
intervention 

• Generates all system clocks from 
the 28 Mhz oscillator 

• Generates all control signals for 
the video RAM and expansion 
RAM card 

• Provides the address to the 
video and expansion RAM 
multiplexing 



ii_jzcji*tJinLoaaa:<ra:a:a:a:a:co</> 




■ 'aJ, [ Ar s a b 



■ 



Fat Agnus Block Diagram 



Technical Reference 



A-17 



Custom Graphics Chip 
Denise 



Features: 



• Many different resolutions 
320 x 200 up to 640 x 400 

• 4096 colors on a TV or RGB monitor 

• Eight re-usable sprite controllers 

• 60 or 80 column text 

• Same software for all TVs and monitors 



D6- 


1 


d8 


OS- 


2 


•i; 


DJ- 


3 


■16 


D3- 


4 


4 r > 


D2- 


s 


.14 


Dl - 


6 


J3 


oe- 


7 


■12 


M1H- 


8 


J l 


M0H- 


9 


JOr 


RGA8- 


10 


39 


RGA7- 


\1 


3B 


RGA6- 
RGA5- 


13 8362 36 


RGA4- 


14 


35 


RGA3- 


IS 


3J 


RGA2- 


16 


33 


RGAI - 


17 


32 


BST- 


i8 


31 


VCC- 


19 


30 


R0- 


20 


29 


R1- 


21 


28 


R2- 


2? 


27 


R3- 


23 


26 


B0- 


24 


25- 



09 

010 

01 1 
012 
013 

DM 

0!S 

M : v 
MlH 

vss 

CCK 
CLK 
NC 
Z0 



Pin 



Name 



1-7 


D0-D6 


8 


MlH 


9 


M0H 


10-17 


RGAI -8 


18 


/BURST 


19 


Vcc 


20-23 


R0-3 


24-27 


B0-3 


28-31 


G0-3 


32 


N/C 


33 


/ZD 


34 


N/C 


35 


7M 


36 


CCK 


37 


Vss 


38 


MOV 


39 


M1V 


40-48 


D7-D15 



Description Type 

Data Bus Lines 0-6 I/O 

Mouse 1 Horizontal I 

Mouse Horizontal I 

Register Address 1 -8 I 

Color Burst O 

+ 5 VDC I 

Video Red Bit 0-3 O 

Video Blue Bit 0-3 O 

Video Green Bit 0-3 O 

No Connection N/C 

Background Indicator O 

No Connection N/C 

7. 15909 MHz Clock I 

Color Clock I 

Ground I 

Mouse Vertical I 

Mouse 1 Vertical I 

Data Bus Lines 7-15 I/O 



Technical Reference 



5 5 g 
o « x 
U V) o 



"7\ 



M± 



1 5UJ 



siejunoo 
esnoiM 



s> 



(r 



CN C 

nUE 



I 



« I ° | 

nidi 



I « 



i^J ^ 



Jo 

'£ i: y 

o c '5 

'C o 

£ o _j 



7^ 



7\ 



3 



c u 
o at 

'S o 



• a 



a 



5 • C— 

isi v 

« o OS / ' 

is'" ?\ — . 



I 



C2I i 

N - 1 " u E 



= C 3 

X V) u 



:« 



«Oi 



f 



(0 



^z 



n 



7 I O 2 

-J c a 



f 



7 5_: 

\ o. .5 

— * •? m 



! < 



°- s 
s S 
a a 



^z 



E 

1 s 

o e 
u o 



\7 



tf 7 .hi 



= e 
c 
U U CC 



c 



s> 



<- 



.5 8: 
<i i ■ 

o g i 
o </> cc 



z 



K-, 



oqojjs 



ouAs 



Li 



U 

c 

5 

<u 
<s> 

C 

<u 

C 



JeW"B 




Technical Reference 



A-19 



Custom Sound /Peripherals Chip 
Paula 



Features: 



• Four voices of sound output configured 
as two stereo channels 

• Nine octaves 

• Complex waveforms 

• Uses both amplitude and frequency 
modulation 

• I/O controls for disk data and controller ports 

• Microdisk controller 



08- 


, 


48 


07- 


2 


4 7 


06- 


3 


45 


D5- 


4 


46 


04- 


5 


44 


03- 


6 


43 


02- 


7 


42 


VSS- 


8 


a i 


01 - 


9 


40 


00- 


10 


39 


ftT5- 


l \ 


38 


OMAL- 
IPCB- 


\l 8364 "I 


TC1- 


Id 


35 


I'pn- 


15 


34 


i*JT2- 


16 


33 


nsrn- 


17 


32 


iTjTB — 


18 


31 - 


RGAfl- 


19 


30 


RGA7- 


20 


29- 


RGA6- 


21 


28- 


RGA5- 


22 


27 


RGA4- 


23 


26 


RGA3- 


24 


2 5 



Dt3 
014 
015 

axo 

TXO 
OKWB 

0"KRD 

PIX 

ANAGNO 

PfflY 

?9X 

AUOA 

AU08 

CCKQ 

CCK 

VCC 

RGAi 

RGA2 



• Interrupt control system 



Pin 



Name 



1-7 


D2-D8 


8 


Vss 


9,10 


D0,DI 


11 


/RES 


12 


DMAL 


13-15 


/IPLO-2 


16-18 


/INT2,3,6 


19-26 


RGAI -8 


27 


Vcc 


28 


CCK 


29 


CCKQ 



Description Type 

Data Bus Lines 2-8 I/O 

Ground I 

Data Bus Lines 0,1 I/O 

System Reset I 

DMA Request Line O 

Interrupt Line 0-2 O 

Interrupt Level 2,3,6 I 

Register Address 1-8 I 

+5VDC I 

Color Clock I 

Color Clock Delay I 



A-20 Technical Reference 



30 


AUDB 


Right Audio 





31 


AUDA 


Left Audio 





32 


POT0X 


Pot OX 


I/O 


33 


POT0Y 


PotOY 


I/O 


34 


VSSANA 


Analog Ground 


I 


35 


POT IX 


Pot IX 


I/O 


36 


POTIY 


Pot 1Y 


I/O 


37 


/DKRD 


Disk Read Data 


I 


38 


/DKWD 


Disk Write Data 





39 


DKWE 


Disk Write Enable 





40 


TXD 


Serial Transmit Data 





41 


RXD 


Serial Receive Data 


I 


42-48 


D9-15 


Data Bus Lines 9-15 


I/O 



Technical Reference A-21 




A-22 



Technical Reference 



List of 2000 Motherboard Jumpers 



J101 

3 2 1 



• • • 



This jumper determines the high-order address bit for Fat 
Agnus. In its normal position, the high-order bit is A23; in its 
other position, this bit is A19. The current Fat Agnus chip 
requires the A23 signal for proper management of the memory 
at $C00000. Future Fat Agnus chips may map things different- 
ly; this keeps the current board compatible with simple en- 
hancements to the chip set. 



J200 



1 


• 




2 


• 




3 


• 




J300 


1 2 3 


• 


• • 









This jumper is used to set the light-pen port number. In the 
position shown, the light pen input will be the FIRE input of 
mouse/joystick port 0. With the jumper in the other position, 
the light pen input will be the FIRE input of mouse/joystick 
port 1. 

This jumper determines the time base used for the 50/60Hz 
CIA timer chip. In the normal position, the 50/60Hz TICK 
clock, based on AC line frequency, is used as a time base. In 
the alternate position, the vertical sync pulse from the video 
section is used. The system will not operate properly without 
one of these clocks. 



J301 This jumper is closed to add a second internal floppy drive, 

open to leave the second floppy out of the main unit box. The 

X X Amiga expects an ID bit stream from each floppy drive; this 

lets it determine the drive type. External floppies have this ID 
circuitry on board, but as it's not an industry standard capabili- 
ty, it has to be implemented on the A2000 motherboard to save 
cost on internal drives. Leaving the jumper open prevents the 
Amiga from seeing the ID sequence. 

J500 This jumper is used to enable the 512K of RAM at $C0O000 

and the real-time clock. It is normally closed; opening it will 
X-X disable both this extra RAM and the real-time clock. 



Technical Reference 



A-23 



Appendix B 



AmigaDOS Information 



AmigaDOS User's Commands B-3 
ED Screen Editor Commands B-6 
AmigaDOS Error Messages B-8 



AmigaDOS Information B-l 



This appendix includes three tables containing reference information for using 
AmigaDOS, the Amiga operating system: 

• AmigaDOS User's Commands 

• Screen Editor (ED) Commands 

• AmigaDOS Error Messages 



AmigaDOS User's Commands 

Each command is listed, defined, and followed by an example where one is 
needed. For further information beyond the explanations in Chapter 7 and this 
table, see the AmigaDOS User's Manual. 

File Utilities 



I 


is the comment character. 




;loop number one 


< 


directs command input. 




<B 




<error> 


> 


directs command output. 




>A 


COPY 


copies one file to another or copies all files from one 




directory to another. 




COPY prog TO work 




copies prog to work in the current directory 


DELETE 


deletes up to 10 files or directories. 




DELETE progl 


DIR 


shows filenames in a directory. 




DIR:df1 




provides a list of files from directory of disk in drive I 


ED 


enters a screen editor for text files. 




ED progl 


EDIT 


enters a line-by-line editor. 




EDIT progl 


FILENOTE 


attaches a note with a maximum of 80 characters to a 




specified file. 




FILENOTE progl 




COMMENT "tested 3-mar" 




attaches the comment tested 3-mar to progl 



AmigaDOS Information B-3 



JOIN 

LIST 

MAKEDIR 

PROTECT 

RENAME 
SEARCH 

SORT 
TYPE 

CLI Control 
BREAK 

CD 



ENDCLI 
NEWCLI 
PROMPT 
RUN 



STACK 



concatenates up to 15 files to form a new file. 

JOIN progl prog2 AS textfile 

joins the two files together and places the result in 

textfile 

examines and displays detailed information about a file 

or directory. 

creates a directory with a specific name. 

MAKEDIR progs 

sets a file's protection status.. 

PROTECT progl 

FLAGS r 

renames a file or directory. 

RENAME progl to final prog 

looks for a specified text string in all the files of a 

directory. 

SEARCH dfO: "Amiga"ALL 

sorts simple files. 

SORT text TO sorted-text 

types a file to the screen that you can optionally specify 

as text or hex. 

TYPE progl 



sets attention flags in a given process. 

BREAK 5 D 

sets the CTRL-D attention flag of process 5 

sets a current directory and/or drive. 

CD df 1 :work 

sets current drive to dfJ , and current directory to work 

ends an interactive CLI process. 

creates a new interactive CLI process. 

changes the prompt in the current CLI. 

executes commands as background processes. 

RUN 

EXECUTE progl 

executes in the background all the commands in the file 

progl 

displays or sets the stack size for commands. 

STACK 8000 

sets the stack to 8000 bytes 



B^l AmigaDOS Information 



STATUS 



WHY 



displays information about the CLI processes currently 

in existence. 

STATUS 

displays brief information about all processes 

explains why a previous command failed. 



Command Sequence Control 



ASK 

ECHO 

EXECUTE 

FAILAT 

IF 

LAB 

QUIT 

SKIP 

WAIT 



writes a single string argument and asks the user to 

respond yes or no. 

displays the message specified in a command argument. 

executes a file of commands. 

fails a command sequence if a program returns an error 

code greater than or equal to this number. 

tests specified actions within a command sequence. 

defines a label (see SKIP). 

exits from a command sequence with a given error code. 

jumps forward to LAB in a command sequence. 

waits for, or until, a specified time. 



System and Storage Management 

ASSIGN assigns a logical device name to a filing system 

directory. 
DATE displays or sets the system date and time. 

DISKCOPY copies the contents of one entire floppy disk to another. 

FAULT displays messages corresponding to supplied fault or 

error codes. 
FORMAT formats and initializes a new disk. 

INFO gives information about the filing system. 

INSTALL makes a formatted disk bootable. 

RELABEL changes the volume name of a disk. 

SETCLOCK controls the battery backed up real time clock. 



AmigaDOS Information B-5 



ED Screen Editor Commands 

This is a complete list of all the screen editor commands. The extended com- 
mands, which are extended versions of the immediate commands included in this 
table, may include strings or numbers. Strings (text strings) are denoted by Is/ 
while 's.'t. indicates two exchange strings, "n" indicates a number. You must 
press the ESC kc> to enter extended command mode. In the editor, the direction- 
al cursor keys function as normally. 



Special Key Mappings 



Command 



Action 



Backspace 

DEL 

ESC 

Return 

Tab 



Delete character to left of cursor 
Delete character at cursor 
Enter extended command mode 
Split line at cursor and create new line 
Move cursor right to next TAB 



Immediate Commands 



Command 


Action 


CTRL-A 


Insert line 


CTRL-B 


Delete line 


CTRL-D 


Scroll text down 


CTRL-E 


Move to top or bottom of screen 


CTRL-F 


Flip case 


CTRL-G 


Repeat last extended command line 


CTRL-H 


Delete character left of cursor (Backspace) 


CTRL-I 


Move cursor right to the next tab position 


CTRL-M 


Return 


CTRL-O 


Delete word or spaces 


CTRL-R 


Cursor to end of previous word 


CTRL-T 


Cursor to start of next word 


CTRL-U 


Scroll text up 


CTRL-V 


Verify screen 


CTRL-Y 


Delete to end of line 



B-6 AmigaDOS Information 



Extended Commands 



Command 


Action 




ESC A 


Insert line after current line 




ESCB 


Move to bottom of file 




ESC BE 


Block end at cursor 




ESC BF/s/ 


Backward find 




ESCBS 


Block start at cursor 




ESCCE 


Move cursor to end of line 




ESCCL 


Move cursor one position left 




ESCCR 


Move cursor one position right 




ESCCS 


Move cursor to start of line 




ESCD 


Delete current line 




ESCDB 


Delete block 




ESC DC 


Delete character at cursor 




ESC E/s/t/ 


Exchange "s" into "t" 




ESC EQ/s/tf 


Exchange but query first 




ESC EX 


Extend right margin 




ESC F/s/ 


Find string "s" 




ESC I/s/ 


Insert line before current 




ESC IB 


Insert copy of block 




ESC IF/s/ 


Insert file "s" 




ESC J 


Join current line with next 




ESCLC 


Distinguish between upper and lower case in 


searches 


ESCMn 


Move line to number "n" 




ESCN 


Move to start of next line 




ESCP 


Move to start of previous line 




ESCQ 


Quit without saving text 




ESCRP 


Repeat until error 




ESCS 


Split line at cursor 




ESCSA 


Save text to file 




ESC SB 


Show block on screen 




ESCSH 


Show information 




ESC SL n 


Set left margin 




ESC SR n 


Set right margin 




ESC ST n 


Set tab distance 




ESCT 


Move to top of file 




ESCU 


Undo changes on current line 




ESCUC 


Equate U/C and 1/c in searches 




ESC WB/s/ 


Write block to file "s" 




ESCX 


Exit, writing text to file 





AmigaDOS Information B-7 



AmigaDOS Error Messages 

When error messages appear, they often include error numbers. These numbers 
are generated by the Amiga Disk Operating System (AmigaDOS). 

This appendix lists: 

• error numbers that are likely to appear when you're using the Work- 
bench 

• the AmigaDOS messages that correspond to each error number 

• suggestions for what to do when an error occurs 

For more information about the meaning of a specific error number and for 
explanations of error numbers not listed here, see the AmigcDOS User' s Manual. 

ERROR NUMBER ERROR MESSAGE/SUGGESTION 

103 insufficient free store: The Amiga needs more memory 

to perform an operation. Close one or more windows, 
then try the operation again. In rare cases, you may have 
to reset the Amiga to reclaim sufficient memory to con- 
tinue. 

This error can also occur if you attempt to open a tool 
that requires more memory than is installed in your 
Amiga. For information about how much memory a tool 
needs, see the manual for the tool. 

121 file is not an object module: This error may occur if you 

try to open a tool that has been damaged. Try making a 
new copy of the tool from your original disk. 

202 object in use: Another tool is using the project or tool 
you want. You may have to wait for the other tool to 
finish. 

203 object already exists: You cannot give an object the 
same name as an existing object. Either give the existing 
object a different name or delete it so you can reuse its 
name. 



B-8 AmigaDOS Information 



204 directory not found: A faulty tool may have created an 
icon for a drawer without creating the actual drawer. 
Attempt to identify the tool that created the icon, then 
consult your Amiga dealer. 

205 object not found: A tool or project that the Amiga needs 
to locate is not present on the disk. This can happen if (1) 
you've moved a tool to a different drawer, then try to 
open a project created with that tool (2) you've renamed 
either the System or Utilities drawer on the Workbench 
disk, then tried to open a project created with a tool 
that's in the drawer, or (3) the disk containing a tool you 
need is not in a disk drive. 

210 invalid stream component name: When renaming a 

tool, project, drawer, or disk, you have used an invalid 
character. 

213 disk not validated: If a disk light was on when you 
removed a disk or reset the Workbench, the information 
on the disk that was in that drive may be unusable. This 
error may also occur if the disk surface has been 
damaged. 

214 disk write-protected: You have asked the Amiga to add 
information to your disk when the protect tab is in the 
protected position. Either change the position of the 
protect tab or use a disk whose protect tab is in the 
unprotected position. 

218 device not mounted: This error occurs when a tool 

needs a disk that is not currently in a disk drive. 

221 disk full: There is not enough free storage on the disk to 
do what you have requested. Try emptying the Trashcan. 
If this doesn't work, you must either delete objects on 
the disk or use a different disk. 

222 file is protected from deletion: A tool, project, or 
drawer cannot be deleted because it is protected. Select 
the icon for the object, choose Info from the Workbench 
menu, then change its status to DELETABLE. 



AmigaDOS Information B-9 



225 not a DOS disk: Either the disk has not been formatted 
or it is not an AmigaDOS disk. Use a different disk, or, 
if you wish to erase all information currently on the disk, 
choose Initialize from the Disk menu. 

226 no disk in drive: A tool expected to find a disk in a disk 
drive that wasn't there. Insert the disk needed by the tool 
you're using. 



B-10 AmigaDOS Information 



Appendix C 



Using the Amiga 2000 
Keyboard 



Layout of the Keyboard C-l 

Using the Amiga without a Mouse C-8 

Moving the Pointer Without a Mouse C-8 
Selecting Without a Mouse C-9 
Using Menus Without a Mouse C-9 

Amiga 2000 Keymaps C-9 



Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard C- 



In the following pages the four sections of the Amiga 2000 keyboard and the special 
keys are described first. Then the techniques for using the Amiga without a mouse 
are outlined. Finally, the keyboard maps (keymaps)for different countries are given. 



Layout of the Keyboard 

The Amiga 2000 keyboard is divided into four sections: 

• The Typewriter Area (the main keyboard) 

• The Cursor Keypad 

• The Numeric Keypad 

• The Function Keys 

The general keyboard is illustrated on the following page. When using the 
keyboard, keep the following points in mind: 

• Keys can be program-controlled — that is, their use can be defined by 
the software being used (e.g. , an application program, such as a word 
processor or spreadsheet). For specific information on the program 
control of keys, refer to the manual for the particular software 
program you are using. 

• The keys on the keyboard usually repeat for as long as they are held 
down. 

• You cannot interchange the numeral and the upper case letter O, or 
the numeral 1 and the lower case letter 1. 

• In some cases several keys may be used together, either simulta- 
neously or in a special sequence. 

You can use the keyboard as well as the mouse to move around the screen and 
select icons, gadgets, etc. In many programs you use the keyboard to enter 
information. You can use the keys to tell the computer what you want it to do, 
and to reply to messages or questions the computer displays on the screen, these 
messages and questions are sometimes called "screen prompts" or simply 
"prompts" 

Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard C-3 



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C-4 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



The Typewriter Area 

The typewriter area (see keyboard illustration) provides a standard (QWERTY) 
typewriter keyboard plus additional keys with special uses and capabilities. The 
special keys include: 

ESC 

The ESC (Escape) key, located at the top left of the keyboard, is a program- 
controlled key, often used to expedite leaving or entering a program or a 
program function at non-routine times. 

TAB 

The TAB key, located two rows below the ESC key, can be program- 
controlled to perform tab functions. 

CTRL 

The CTRL (Control) key, located just below the TAB key, is a program- 
controlled key that is often used with other keys to perform special functions. 

CAPS LOCK 

The CAPS LOCK key is located next to the CTRL key. When the CAPS 
LOCK key is first pressed a light on that key is illuminated. The alphabetic 
characters (A through Z) are displayed in upper case as long as the light is on. 
However, the upper characters on the numeric row at the top of the typewriter 
area (!,",# through /) are not affected by the Caps Lock key. To type these 
characters, you must simultaneously depress one of the Shift keys and the key 
for the desired character. To release the Caps Lock key, press that key again 
so that its light goes out. 

SHIFT Keys 

There are two Shift keys, located on either side of the bottom row of letters 
(z,x,c, etc.). These keys can perform the same function as the shift keys on a 
standard typewriter — that is, depressing either Shift key simultaneously with 
any alphabetic key or with any key on the top row of the typewriter area 
causes the upper character on that key to be displayed. In addition, the Shift 
keys are often used with other keys to perform special functions. 



Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard C-5 



ALT Keys 

There are two ALT (Alternate) keys, located at the extreme left and right sides 
of the bottom row of the keyboard. These keys are also often used with other 
keys to perform special functions. 



The A (left) Amiga key is located on the bottom row of the keyboard, just to 
the left of the space bar. The A key is also used with other keys to perform 
special functions. 

A 

The A (right) Amiga key is located on the bottom row of the keyboard, just 
to the right of the space bar. The A key is also used with other keys to 
perform special functions. 

Note: Simultaneously depressing the CTRL key and the two Amiga keys 
resets the Amiga 2000. See Chapter 3 for details. 

RETURN 

The RETURN key is the oversize key located on the right side of the 
typewriter area, in the middle two rows. You use this key to transmit a 
command or information to the computer. 

BACKSPACE 

The BACKSPACE is the key farthest right on the top row of the typewriter 
area. Pressing the BACKSPACE key causes the cursor, and any characters to 
the right of it, to move to the left. Any characters to the left of the cursor are 
erased. 

DEL 

The DELETE is located just to the right of the top row of the typewriter area. 
Pressing the DEL (Delete) key deletes the character at the cursor position. 
Any characters to the right of the cursor move to the left. 



C-6 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



HELP 

The Help key, located to the right of the DELETE key, is a program- 
controlled key that can be programmed to provide user assistance while a 
program is being run . 

NOTE: The international keyboards have two additional keys, located at the 
SHIFT key positions. 



The Cursor Keypad 

The four cursor keys are grouped in a small keypad located on the bottom right 
side of the keyboard, between the typewriter area and the numeric keypad. 

These keys control the movement of the cursor (up, down, left, right) on the 
screen display. The direction in which each key moves the cursor is indicated by 
the direction of the arrow displayed on the top of the individual key. 



The Numeric Keypad 

The Numeric Keypad is located to the far right of the keyboard. The keys are 
arranged in a calculator layout to facilitate numeric data entry. The numeric and 
arithmetic symbol keys on the keypad act just like the numeric and arithmetic 
symbol keys in the typewriter area of the keyboard. You use the ENTER key on 
the numeric keypad just as you use the RETURN key on the main keyboard — 
that is, to transmit data and commands to the computer. 



The Function Keys 

The Function Keys, located at the top of the keyboard and numbered Fl through 
F10, are program-controlled keys. 



Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard C-7 



Using the Amiga Without a Mouse 

On the Amiga, anything you can do with the mouse you can also do from the 
keyboard: 

• move the Pointer 

• make selections 

• use menus 



Moving the Pointer Without a Mouse 

To move the Pointer without a mouse, hold down either Amiga key; then, with 
that key still held down, press a cursor key. 

With the Amiga key held down, the Pointer moves in the direction of the cursor 
key you press. The longer you hold down the keys, the faster the Pointer moves. 
To make the Pointer move even faster, hold down both the SHIFT key along with 
the other two keys. To stop moving the Pointer, release the cursor key. 



C-8 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



Selecting Without a Mouse 

To select an icon without using a mouse, first point to the icon, then press the left 
Amiga key and the left ALT key at the same time. 

Anything you do by pressing the Selection button on the mouse you can also do 
by pressing the left Amiga key and the left ALT key at the same time. 



Using Menus Without a Mouse 

Just as pressing the left Amiga key and the left ALT key at the same time is like 
pressing the Selection button, pressing the right Amiga key and the right ALT 
key at the same time is like pressing the Menu button. 

To use menus without a mouse, hold down the right Amiga key and right ALT 
key while you move the Pointer with the cursor keys. When the menu item you 
want is highlighted, release the right Amiga key and right ALT key. 



Amiga 2000 Keymaps 

The Amiga 2000 allows you to change the standard keyboard to a number of 
other keyboard configurations. For example, you can select a German, British or 
French keyboard. For details on how to do this, see the description of the 
Setmap feature in Chapter 5. 

On the following pages are keymaps showing the possible configuration of the 
Amiga 2000 keyboard. 



Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard C-9 



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C-14 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 













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C-18 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



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C-20 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



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C-24 Using the Amiga 2000 Keyboard 



Appendix D 



Printer Escape Codes 



Printer Escape Sequences D-3 
ANSI X3.64 Style Commands D-4 



Printer Escape Codes D-l 



There are many types of printers you can use with an Amiga. Most are mentioned 
in Chapter 8. Your Amiga dealer can advise you about others for both general 
purpose and specialized applications. 

You use the Preferences tool to tell the Amiga which printer you're using and to 
change a number of settings that affect printers. To learn about Preferences, see 
Chapter 7. 



— Printer Escape Sequences 

The Amiga printer device accepts standard escape sequences that are translated 
into escape sequences specific to the printer selected in Preferences. When using 
the printer device or printer handler (PRT), use these standard sequences to 
implement special printer features. 

If the feature is not supported by your printer or driver, the sequence will be 
ignored. 

To send a command to the printer from CLI, follow the steps below. 

1 . Redirect the keyboard to the printer by typing the following: 
copy * to prt: 

2. Wait until disk access stops. 

3. Type an escape sequence, for example, the NLQ On command: 
ESC [2"z 

What you type will not be echoed on the screen. 

4. Hold down the CTRL key and press the backslash (\) key to terminate the 
keyboard file. 

If your printer supports NLQ mode, NLQ will now be on. Any file you COPY or 
TYPE to prt: will be printed in near letter quality. You can also use the four steps 
above to create small printer command files. For example, you could replace the 
prt: in step 1 with ram:NLQon. 

Then the four steps will create a file called NLQon in ram:. To turn on NLQ, 
type: 

copy ram: NLQon to prt:. 

Printer Escape Codes D-3 



ANSI X3.64 Style Commands 

Note: ESC is the Escape key if you are typing a sequence from the keyboard. In 
BASIC, it is CHR$(27). In C, '033 can be used. 



LABEL 


ESCAPE 


FEATURE 


aRIS 


ESCc 


reset 


aRIN 


ESC#1 


initialize 


aIND 


ESCD 


line feed 


aNEL 


ESCE 


return linefeed 


aRI 


ESCM 


reverse linefeed 


aSGRO 


ESQOm 


normal character set 


aSGR3 


ESC[3m 


italics on 


aSGR23 


ESC[23m 


italics off 


aSGR4 


ESC[4m 


underline on 


aSGR24 


ESC[24m 


underline off 


aSGRl 


ESC[lm 


boldface on 


aSCR22 


ESC[22m 


boldface off 


aSFC 


ESC[30m to 






ESC[39m 


set foreground color 


aSBC 


ESC[40m to 






ESC[49m 


set background coloi 


aSHORPO 


ESC[0w 


normal pitch 


aSHORP 


ESC[2w 


elite on 


aSHORPl 


ESC[lw 


elite off 


aSHORP4 


ESC[4W 


condensed fine on 


aSHOPR3 


ESC3w 


condensed off 


aSHORP6 


ESC6w 


enlarged on 


aSHORP5 


ESC[5w 


enlarged off 


aDEN6 


ESC[6"z 


shadow print on 


aDEN5 


ESC[5"z 


shadow print off 


aDEN4 


ESC[4"z 


doublestrike on 


aDEN3 


ESC[3"z 


doublestrike off 


aDEN2 


ESC[2"z 


NLQon 


aDENl 


ESC[l"z 


NLQ off 


aSUS2 


ESC[2v 


superscript on 


aSUSl 


Esqiv 


superscript off 


aSUS4 


ESC[4v 


subscript on 


aSUS3 


ESC[3v 


subscript off 



D-4 Printer Escape Codes 



aSUSO 


ESC[0v 


normalize the line 


aPLU 


ESC I 


partial line up 


aPLD 


ESCK 


partial line down 


aFNTO 


ESC(B 


US character set 


aFNTl 


ESC(R 


French character set 


aFNT2 


ESC(K 


German character set 


aFNT3 


ESC(A 


UK character set 


aFNT4 


ESC(E 


Danish I character set 


aFNT5 


ESC(H 


Swedish character set 


aFNT6 


ESC(Y 


Italian character set 


aFNT7 


ESC(Z 


Spanish character set 


aFNT8 


ESC(J 


Japanese character set 


aFNT9 


ESC(6 


Norwegian character set 


aFNTIO 


ESC(C 


Danish II character set 


aPROP2 


ESC[2p 


proportional spacing on 


aPROPl 


ESC[lp 


proportional spacing off 


aPROPO 


ESC[0p 


proportional spacing clear 


aTSS 


ESC[n E 


set proportional offset 


aJFY5 


ESC[5 F 


auto left justify 


aJFY7 


ESC[7 F 


auto right justify 


aJFY6 


ESC[6 F 


auto full justify 


aJFYO 


ESC[0 F 


auto justify off 


aJFY3 


ESC[3 F 


letter space (justify) 


aJFYl 


ESC[1 F 


word fill (auto center) 


aVERPO 


ESC[0z 


1/8" line spacing 


aVERPl 


ESQlz 


1/6" line spacing 


aSLPP 


ESC[nt 


set form length n 


aPERF 


ESC[nq 


perf skip n (n > 0) 


aPERFO 


ESC[0q 


perf skip off 


aLMS 


ESC#9 


left margin set 


aRMS 


ESC#0 


right margin set 


aTMS 


ESC#8 


top margin set 


aBMS 


ESC#2 


bottom margin set 


aSTBM 


ESC[Pnl;Pn2r 


top & bottom margins 


aSLRM 


ESC[Pnl;Pn2s 


left and right margins 


aCAM 


ESC#3 


clear margins 


aHTS 


ESCH 


set horizontal tab 


aVTS 


ESCJ 


set vertical tabs 



Printer Escape Codes D-5 



aTBCO 


ESC[Og 


clear horizontal tab 


aTBC3 


ESC[3g 


clear all horizontal tabs 


aTBCl 


ESC[lg 


clear vertical tab 


aTBC4 


ESC[4g 


clear all vertical tabs 


aTBCALL 


ESC#4 


clear all horizontal and vertical tabs 


aTBSALL 


ESC#5 


set default tabs 


aESTEND 


ESC[Pn"x 


extended commands 



Note: Sometimes in graphics mode the Epson and other dot matrix printers print 
with narrow blank lines across the output. Selecting Custom for Paper size in 
Preferences may fix this. 



D-6 Printer Escape Codes 



Appendix E 



_ Amiga Bibliography 



Introductory Level E-3 
Advanced Books E-4 
AmigaDOS Information E-4 



Amiga Bibliography E-I 



This manual is only an introduction to using the Amiga, and only scratches the 
surface. There's much, much more you can do with your Amiga. 

Here are some books available from your local bookstore or Amiga dealer that will 
help you learn how to use your Amiga to its — and your— fullest potential. 

This isn't a complete list, since the Amiga library is constantly growing as new 
books come out. Also, books not specifically about the Amiga may be universal, and 
thus, applicable for the Amiga. The Amiga books are listed in three categories: 

• Introductory Level, which includes books about the Amiga hardware 
and applications for beginners. 

• Advanced Books are written on a level appropriate for the experienced 
programmer, and cover topics including programming languages, 
sound and graphics, and technical hardware details. 

• AmigaDOS Information features books that explain the Amiga disk 
operating system and CLI. 



Introductory Level 

Amiga Applications, Flynn, Compute! Books 

The Amiga Handbook, Breuer, Progressive Peripherals and Software 

The Amiga System: An Introduction, Donald, Progressive Peripherals and 

Software 

Beginner's Guide to the Amiga, McNeill, Compute! Books 

Elementary Amiga BASIC, Regena, Compute! Books 

Kids and the Amiga, Carlson, Compute! Books 



Amiga Bibliography E-3 



Advanced Books 

Amiga Technical Reference Set, Addison Wesley 

Advanced Amiga BASIC, Halfhill and Brannon, Compute! Books 

Amiga Programmer's Handbook. Mortimore, Sybex Books 

Amiga Programming Guide, Knight, Que Corporation 

Amiga Programming Guide, Levy, Compute! Books 

IFF Technical Notes, CBM Technical Support Group 

Inside Amiga Graphics, Leemon, Compute! Books 

Inside the Amiga, Berry, SAMS 

Music, Sound and Graphics on the Amiga, Boom, Microsoft Press 



AmigaDOS Information 

The AmigaDOS Manual, Bantam Computer Books 

AmigaDOS Reference Guide, Levitan and Leemon, Compute! Books 

Mastering AmigaDOS, Stanton and Pinal, Arrays Inc. 



E-A Amiga Bibliography 



Appendix F 



Amiga 2000 Schematics 



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Amiga 2000 Schematics F-5 



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F-6 Amiga 2000 Schematics 



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F-8 Amiga 2000 Schematics 





Amiga 2000 Schematics F-9 




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F-10 Amiga 2000 Schematics 



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311 



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Amiga 2000 Schematics F- 1 1 







F- 1 2 Amiga 2000 Schematics 




Amiga 2000 Schematics F- 1 3 




F-14 Amiga 2000 Schematics 



Glossary 



add-on 



alert 



ALT key 
Amiga keyboard 
Amiga key 



Amiga Monitor 
AmigaDOS 
audio connector 

audio signal 

available menu item 
Back Gadget 

baud rate 

Bridgeboard 



A printer, game controller, modem, or other external 
component you use with an Amiga. 

A message displayed when there is a serious problem 
with an Amiga. 

One of two keys next to either of the Amiga keys at 
the bottom of the keyboard. 

The keyboard similar to a typewriter's attached to 
an Amiga. 

The keys on an Amiga keyboard directly left and 
right of the Space Bar. You use the Amiga keys for 
selection or menu shortcuts, or when operating the 
Amiga without a mouse. 

An RGB monitor made for use with the Amiga. 

The Amiga disk operating system. 

The connector you use when attaching audio equip- 
ment with an Amiga. 

The output from one of the two audio connectors on 

the Amiga. 

An item in a menu that you can choose. 

A gadget you select to move a window or screen 
behind other windows or screens that overlap it . 

The rate at which information is transferred through 
the serial connector. 

An internal peripheral that allows the Amiga to emu- 
late an IBM-XT. 



Glossary 1 



cable 

choose 

chosen option 
CLI 

click 

Clipboard 
clipping 
Clock 



A set of insulated wires used either to connect the 
parts of the Amiga or to connect add-ons to the 

Amiga. 

To pick a menu item. You normally choose menu 
items with the aid of the Menu button. 

An option that is currently in effect. 

Command line interpreter — a method of using the 
Amiga by typing in commands directly, without 
using a mouse. 

1. To press and release a mouse button. 2. The 

action you perform when you click. 

A place where parts of a project that you cut or copy 

are kept. 

A part of a project that has been cut or copied and 
put on the Clipboard. 

A tool that lets you display the time on the 
Workbench. 



close 



Close Gadget 



1. To remove a window, requester, or screen from 
the display. 2. To put away a tool or project. 

A gadget that you select to close a window or 
screen. 



Color Palette 
column 

command 

composite video monitor 
connector 



The set of colors available in a screen. 

A set of adjoining pixels or characters that form a 
vertical line on the video display. 

A menu item that, when you choose it, instructs the 
Amiga to perform a task. Compare option. 

See NTSC monitor 

Any of the places on the outside of the Amiga to 
which you can attach external equipment. 



Glossary 



copy 
cursor key 



custom screen 

cut 

Demos drawer 

destination disk 

discard 

disk 

disk drawer 

disk drive 

disk drive light 

disk gauge 



display 

Display Centering 
Gadget 



double click [n. 



To replicate a tool, project, drawer, or disk. 

One of four keys with an arrow on top at the right 
of the keyboard. You press these keys either to 
move the Text Cursor or, by pressing the right 
Amiga key at the same time, to move the Pointer. 

A screen created by a tool for its own use and, 
optionally, for use by other tools. 

To remove part of a project and place it on the 
Clipboard. Compare erase. 

A drawer on the Workbench disk in which 
demonstration tools are kept. 

When copying disks, the disk that receives the 
copy. Compare source disk. 

To dispose of a project, tool, or drawer by 

erasing it from the disk. 

A medium for storing and retrieving information. 

A drawer that contains the contents of a disk. 

A device for reading information from and saving 
information on a disk. 

A light on the front of a disk drive that shows 
when the disk cannot safely be removed. 

A indicator at the left of the window for a open 
disk that shows how much free storage is 
available. 

What appears on a video monitor or television. 



A gadget provided by Preferences for centering 
the image on the display. 

The action you perform when you quickly press 
and release a mouse button twice. 



Glossary 



double-click [v. 



Double-Click Slider 



drag 



Drag Bar 

drawer 

edit 
empty 



erase 

error numbers 
exit gadget 

Extended Selection 

Extras disk 
feature 



To quickly press and release a mouse button 

twice. 

A gadget provided by Preferences for changing 
the maximum length of time between the two 
clicks of a double click. 

To move an icon, gadget, window, or screen by 
putting the Pointer over what you want to move, 
holding down the Selection button, and moving 
the mouse. 

That portion of a Title Bar that contains no 
gadgets. You drag the Drag Bar to move a win- 
dow or screen. 

A place where tools, projects, and other drawers 
are kept. 

To change the contents of a project. 

To remove any projects, tools, or drawers from 
the Trashcan. When you empty the Trashcan, you 
can no longer get back any of the projects, tools, or 
drawers that were in it. 

To remove part of a project without putting what 
you've removed on the Clipboard. Compare cut. 

Numbers that identify AmigaDOS errors. 

A gadget in a requester that you select to close 
the requester. 

A technique for selecting more than one icon or 
gadget at a time. To use it, you select with the 
Shift key held down. 

One of three microdisks packaged with the 
Amiga. 

A noteworthy property of a tool. 



4 Glossary 



floppy disk 
Front Gadget 

gadget 



ghost [adj.] 
ghost gadget 

ghost icon 

ghost menu item 

Graphic Dump 

highlight 

hold down 

icon 

initialize 



item 



A 5'/4 inch data storage disk. 

A gadget that you select to move a window or 
screen to the front of other windows or screens 
that overlap it. 

Any of the facilities provided within a window, 
requester, or screen, such as Scroll Bars, Sizing 
Gadgets, and Close Gadgets, that you use to 
change what's being displayed or to communicate 
with a tool. 

Displayed less distinctly to indicate unavailability. 

An gadget that is displayed less distinctly to indi- 
cate that it is not currently available. 

An icon that is displayed less distinctly to indicate 
that it is not currently available. 

A menu item that is displayed less distinctly to 
indicate that it is not currently available. 

A Graphic Dump is a Workbench tool that lets 
you print entire screen images including menus 
and icons. 

To display something in a way that distinguishes 
it. Normally, something is highlighted to indicate 
that it is selected. 

To press a mouse button or a key on the key- 
board without releasing it. 

A visual representation of a tool, project, drawer, 
or disk. 

To prepare a disk so that it can be used by an 

Amiga. 

see menu item. 



Glossary 



key 

Key Repeat Slider 

keyboard 
keyboard cable 
keyboard connector 
main unit 



memory 
memory meter 

menu 
Menu Bar 

Menu button 
menu item 
menu shortcut 



Any of the switches on a keyboard. 

A gadget provided by Preferences for changing 
the speed at which keys on the keyboard repeat 
when you hold them down. 

A set of keys used for typing or for giving other 
information to an Amiga. 

The cable used to connect the keyboard to the 
main unit. 

The connector on the main unit to which you 
attach the keyboard cable. 

The largest component packaged with the Amiga. 
The main unit contains the central processor and 
other circuitry, memory, and an internal disk 
drive. 

Electronic circuits used to store information. 

The indicator in the Title Bar for the Workbench 
screen that shows the amount of free RAM in 
bytes. 

A list of items you can choose from. 

A strip at the top of a screen that contains menu 
titles. The menu bar for the selected window 
appears when you hold down the Menu button. 

The right-hand button on the mouse. 

One of the choices in a menu. 

A way of choosing a menu item by pressing a key 
on the keyboard while holding down the 
Commodore or Amiga key. 



Glossary 



menu title 

microdisk 

MIDI 

monochrome monitor 

mouse 

mouse ball 

mouse button 
mouse speed 

Multiple Choice 



Notepad 

NTSC monitor 

OK Gadget 

object 
open 



The name that for a menu that appears in the 
Menu Bar. 

A 3 1/2-inch flexible data storage disk. 

Computer-controlled digital music system 

A type of monitor that displays computer output in 
one color. 

A device you move on a flat surface to move the 
Pointer. 

The ball on the bottom of the mouse that rolls as 
you move the mouse. 

One of the two buttons on a mouse. 

A option provided by Preferences tor varying how 
many inches you must move the mouse to move 
the Pointer roughly a third of the way across the 
display. 

A technique for choosing more than one option at 
a time. To use it, you hold down the Menu 
button, then click the Selection button with the 
Pointer over the options you want. 

A tool provided with the Workbench for writing 
short messages. 

A type of color monitor that can be used with the 
Amiga. 

A gadget in a requester that you select to carry 
out what you've asked for in the requester. 

A tool, project, drawer, or disk. 

1. To display a window, requester, or screen. 

2. To make a tool or project available. 



Glossary 



Open Requester 
option 

palette 
parallel port 

paste 

peripheral 

peripheral interface card 

P.I.C. 

pixel 

pixel color 
point 

Pointer 

Pointer Editing Window 
pop-up requester 
port 



A requester from which you select a project you 
want to open. 

A feature of a tool that, once you choose it, 

persists until you choose another, mutually 
exclusive feature. 

see color palette 

A connector on the back of the Amiga that you use 
to attach printers and other add-ons. 

To copy the contents of the Clipboard into a 
project. 

see add-on 

see P.I.C. 

A card that allows a peripheral to interface with the 
Amiga. 

One of the small elements that together make up 
the video display. 

The color of a pixel on the display. 

To position the tip of the Pointer over an object on 
the display. 

The thing that moves on the display when you 
move the mouse. You use the Pointer to (1) select 
icons and gadgets (2) choose menu items. 

The window displayed by Preferences in which 
you change the Pointer. 

A requester that you open by double-clicking the 
Menu button. 

A connector for attaching add-ons to the Amiga. 



8 Glossary 



Preferences 



press 

Printer Requester 

project 

Project disk 
Project List 

protect 

protect tab 

protected disk 
RAM 
RAM Disk 

random-access memory 
Realtime Clock 
redraw 



A tool that allows you to change various settings of 
an Amiga, including the time, the Workbench 
font, the speed that keys on the keyboard repeat 
when you hold them down, and the interval before 
keys begin repeating. 

To push down a mouse button or key on a 

keyboard. 

A requester provided by Preferences that you use 
to change printer settings. 

A place where information created or used by a 
tool is kept. An example of a project is a note you 
write with the Notepad. 

A disk used to store projects. 

The list of projects you can open from an Open 
Requester. 

To prevent the contents of a project, tool, 
drawer, or disk from being changed. 

A plastic tab on a microdisk that, when you slide 
it so that there is a hole through the disk, prevents 
the information on that disk from being changed. 

A disk whose contents cannot be modified. 

see random-access memory 

A storage area which can be used to temporarily 
hold programs for faster access than loading from 
disk. 

Memory whose contents can be changed while the 
computer is operating. 

A battery-powered clock on the Amiga that, once 
set, keeps time continuously. 

To redisplay what appears in a screen. 



Glossary 



release 



rename 



To stop pressing or holding down a mouse 
button. 



To change the name of a tool, project, disk, 
drawer. 



or 



Repeat Delay Slider 



A gadget provided by Preferences for changing 
how long it takes for a key on the keyboard to 

repeat when you hold it down. 



requester 



A rectangular region in a screen which you use to 
give information to a tool. When a requester 
appears, you must select a gadget in the requester 
to close the requester before you can do anything 
else in the window in which the requester appears. 



reset 



To set up the Workbench again after it has begun 
working. 



resolution 



On a video display, the number of pixels that can 
be displayed in the horizontal and vertical 
directions. 



reverse video 



Displayed using colors opposite those normally 
used. For example, if letters are normally black on 
a white background, white letters on a black 
background are said to be shown in reverse video. 



RGB connector 



The connector on the back of the main unit that 
you use to attach an RGB monitor to the Amiga. 



RGB monitor 



A video monitor, such as the Amiga Monitor, 

that interprets signals for red, green, and blue to 
create colors. 



row 



save 



Say 



A set of adjoining pixels that form a horizontal line 
on the video display. 

To copy the contents of a project onto a disk. 

The speech synthesizing program included on 
Workbench. 



10 Glossary 



screen 



scroll 



Scroll Arrows 



Scroll Bar 
Scroll Box 

select 

Selection button 
selected option 
selected window 

selection shortcut 

serial port 
SetMap 
set up 



A full-width area of the video display with the 
same color palette, resolution, and other 
attributes. 

To move the contents of a project within a 
window. 

Arrows at both ends of a Scroll Bar. To move 
slowly forward through a project, put the Pointer 
over the bottom Scroll Arrow and hold down the 
Selection button. To move slowly backward 
through a project, put the Pointer over the top 
Scroll Arrow and hold down the Selection button. 

A gadget you use to display different parts of a 
project. 

The rectangular area within a Scroll Bar that you 
drag to move rapidly from one part of a project or 
list to another. 

To pick an icon, gadget, or a part of a project 
using the Selection button. 

The left-hand button on the mouse. 

An option that is currently in effect. 

The window that you do work in. Only one 
window can be selected at a time. 

A quick way to select something by pressing a key 
on the keyboard while holding down the left 
Amiga key. 

A connector on the back of the Amiga which you 
use to attach modems and other add-ons. 

The Workbench program that allows you to select 
an international version of the Amiga keyboard. 

To start the Workbench. 



Glossary 1 1 



shortcut 



size 



Sizing Gadget 



A quick way, from the keyboard, to (1) choose a 
menu item (2) select ^n icon or gadget. See menu 
shortcut and selection shortcut. 

To change the dimensions of a window or screen. 

A gadget you drag to change the size of a 
window. 



slider 



source disk 



Space Bar 



status 



A gadget you use to pick a value within a range, 
normally by dragging an arrow along a line. 

When copying disks, the disk that is being copied. 
Compare destination disk. 

The long key at the bottom of the keyboard that 
you press to enter a blank space. 

A characteristic of a tool, project, drawer, or 

disk, such as whether it is deletable or not 
deletable. 



string 

String Gadget 
submenu 



A set of one or more characters. 

A gadget you use to enter or modify strings. 

An additional menu that appears to the side of a 
menu. 



submenu title 



Text Cursor 



timesaver 



Title Bar 



An item in a menu that, when you place the 
Pointer over it, causes a submenu to appear. 

In projects containing text, a marker that indicates 
your position in the project. 

Any technique provided by a tool to save you time. 
A shortcut is one kind of timesaver; another is 
double-clicking the Menu button to get a pop-up 
requester. 

A strip at the top of a screen or window that 
contains the name of the screen or window. 



12 Glossary 



Title Gadget 



tool 



Trashcan 
TV modulator 
TV modulator cable 
TV switch box 

type 

type font 

type size 
type style 
typeface 

unavailable menu item 

video cable 

video equipment 



A gadget in Open Requesters th at you use to 

type in the title of the project you want to open. 

A facility for working with information. For 
example, the Graphicraft tool lets you create and 
change visual information that takes the form of a 
painting. 

The place where you put projects, tools, and 
drawers to discard them. 

A device used to connect a television set to an 

Amiga. 

A cable you use to connect a TV modulator to a 
TV switch box. 

A device that allows you to connect both a 
computer and an antenna to a television and switch 
between them. 

The kind of object (tool, project, drawer, or 

disk) an object is. 

A set of letters, numbers, and symbols that are the 
same type size and of the same typeface. 

The size of text. 

A variation of a typeface, such as italic or bold. 

A set of letters, numbers, and symbols that share 
the same design. 

Any item in a menu th at you cannot choose. 
Unavailable menu items are shown as ghost items. 

The cable you use to connect an RGB monitor to 

an Amiga. 

A video monitor or television. 



Glossary 



video monitor 



Wait Pointer 



window 



Workbench 



Workbench disk 
Workbench screen 



A device for displaying visual information from an 
Amiga. 

A special shape for the Pointer that indicates that 
you must wait before continuing. 

A rectangular area in a screen. Tools use windows 
to accept and present information. 

A tool you use to get and manipulate the facilities 
of the Amiga. You use the Workbench to open, 
close, move, create, and delete projects, tools and 
drawers, to copy disks, as well as to perform 
other operations. 

A disk that contains the Workbench. 

The screen used by the Workbench and other 
tools. 



working disk 
"Y" adapter 



A copy of an original disk that came with the 
Amiga or with a tool. 

An adapter that lets you combine both of the audio 
signals from an Amiga into a single audio signal. 
You use this adapter to connect the Amiga 
Monitor to an Amiga. 



14 Glossary 



Index 



adding to the Amiga 8-3 
add-ons 8-3 

attaching a printer 8-6 

Bridgecard 8-5 

cables for 8-3 

floppy disk drive 8-5 

hard disk drive 8-6 

internal memory 8-4 

modem 8-6 

precautions for 8-3 
alerts 4-3 1 
ALT key C-6 

using menus with C-9 
Amiga: 

adding to 8-3 

assembling 2-3 

caring for 9-1 

specifications for 1-13, A-3 
Amiga Basic 1-8 
Amiga External 3.5 Disk Drive 8-5 

connector for 8-5 
Amiga Hardware Manual iv 

information about connectors in A-6 
Amiga keys C-3 

moving Pointer with C-8 
Amiga memory expansion 1-1, 1-10, 8-4 
Amiga ROM Kernel Manual iv 
Amiga Service Centers 9-3 
AmigaDOS7-3, B-3 

error descriptions B-8 

file descriptions 7-11 

D1R command B-3 
AmigaDOS errors B-8 
AmigaDOS Manual 4-32, 7-26, 8-6, B-3 
AmigaDOS messages B-8 
alarm clock 5-7 
analog clock 5-4 
Aspect (printer setting) 6-16 
assembling the Amiga 2-3 
attaching a printer 8-6 
attributes, video 4-4 
audio connections 2-8 

to stereos 2-9 

to monitors 2-9 
audio connectors 2-8 



illustration of 2-8 
audio equipment 2-8 

attaching an Amiga to 2-9 

Back Gadget 4-20, 4-28 

for windows 4-20 

for screens 4-28 
baud rate, setting 6-8 
Bridgecard 1-3, 1-11,8-5 

cables 8-3, 9-7 

attaching to connectors 2-6, 2-7 

proper cables for add-ons 2-5, 8-3 
Calculator 5-30, 5-32 
care of monitors 9-3 
caring for the Amiga 9-1 
centering the monitor display 6-7 
Change Printer Screen 6-13 
changing the Pointer 6- 1 1 
choosing menu items 3-13, 

5-12 through 5-26 
cleaning the mouse 9-4 
Clean Up 4-34 
CLI 6-6, 7-3 

icon for 7-3 

making the CLI available 7-3 

Real Time Clock 7-24 
clicking 3-10 
Clock 5-3 
Close 4-24 
Close Gadget 4-24 

using 4-24 
closing windows 7-26 
color printers 8-6 
colors 5-37 

changing Workbench colors 5-37 

for screens 6-9 
Command Line Interface See CLI 
commands in menus 3-16 
connecting audio equipment 2-8 
connectors 2-4 

audio 2-8 

disk drive 8-5 

keyboard 2-6 

parallel A-8 

Index 1 



RGB 2-7 

serial 1-13 

parallel 1-13,8-6 
copying disks 4-31, 7-6 

making backup copies 3-16 
creating a project 4-5 
cursor keys C-7, 5-10 

moving Pointer with C-8 

date and time 

changing on Workbench 5-3, 6-5 

setting in CLI 7-14 
Demos drawer 5-3 
demonstrations of graphics 5-3 
diagnostic messages, displaying B-8 
digital clock 5-4 
Discard 4-12, 4-14 
discarding drawers 4-14 
discarding projects 4-12 
discarding tools 4-12 
disk drives 1-6 

adding a disk drive 8-5, 8-6 

using 8-5, 8-6 
disk drive light 3-7 

warnings about 3-7, 3-19, 4-33, 9-6 
disk gauge 4-24 
disks: 

as drawers 4-15 

care of 9-6 

copying 4-31, 7-6 

disk gauge 4-24 

duplicating 4-31 

freeing disk space 3-6 

how to insert 4-4 

icons for 4-31, 6-7 

initializing 4-31 

making backup copies 9-6 

opening 3-3, 4-31 

operations involving 4-31 

preparing new disks 3-3, 4-3 1 , 7-8 

properties of 9-6 

protect tabs on 3-3 

removing 9-6 

renaming 4-31 

using 3-3 

volume as name for 3-18 

working disks 3-16 
display: 



changing size of text on 6-6 

centering 6-7 
Display Centering Gadget 6-7 
dot-matrix printers 8-6 
double-click 3-10 

changing the delay for 6-6 
double-clicking 3-10 

to open a tool 4-9 
Drag Bar: 

for windows 4-17 
dragging 3- 1 2 
dragging screens 4-25 
dragging windows 4-15 
drawers: 

creating 4-13 

Demos 5-3 

discarding 4-14 

duplicating 4-14 

Empty 4-14 

icons for 4-4 

moving 4-13 

moving to a new disk 4-13 

opening 4-13 

operations involving 4-12 

renaming 4-14 

Utilities 4-6 
Duplicate: 

duplicating drawers with 4-14 
duplicating disks 4-31 
duplicating drawers 4-14 
duplicating projects 4-10 
duplicating tools 4-10 

Empty Trash 4-12 
error messages B-8 

displaying B-8 
error numbers B-8 
exit gadgets 4-30 
Extended Selection 4-35 
external disk drives 8-5 
Extras disk BASIC) 3-3 

FCC requirements 9-7 

Federal Communications Commission See FCC 

fonts, for the Notepad 5-22, 5-29, 5-30 

freeing disk space 4-12 

Front Gadget 4-19 



Index 



for windows 4-19 
for screens 4-27 

gadgets 4-10,4-11 

Back Gadget 4-20, 4-28 

Close Gadget 4-24, 5-8 

Display Centering Gadget 6-7 

Drag Bar 4-17, 4-26 

exit 4-30 

Front Gadget 4-19, 4-27 

ghost 4-16 

in windows 4-16 

Scroll Bar 4-20 

Sizing Gadget 4-18 
game controller connectors A- 10 

pin assignments for A- 10 
ghost gadgets 4- 1 6 
ghost menu items 3-15 
Graphic Dump 5-50 
graphics, demonstrations of 5-3 

highlighting 5-45 

humidity, acceptable range for A-3 

Icon Editor 5-23 
icons 1-6, 5-33 

changing 5-37 

creating 5-33, 5-34 

dragging 3-12 

editing 5-33 

for Workbench disk 3-11, 4-4, 5-46 

highlighted 3-11, 5-45 

on the Workbench 3-8, 5-48 

selecting 3-10 5-36 

straightening up 4-34 

types of icons 5-46 
Image (printer setting) 6-16 
Info 4-11, 7-12 
Initialize 4-31 
initializing disks 4-31 
ink-jet printers 8-6, 8-7 
input/output connectors A-6 
interfaces, See connectors 
interference, radio and television 9-7 
Intuition: The Amiga User Interface iv 

key repeat speed, changing 6-5 
keyboard 1-5, C- 3, C- 10 to C-24 



attaching 2-6 
care of 9-3 

changing the tilt of 2-7 
folding legs on 2-7 
illustration of 1-5, 2-6, C-4, 
C-10toC-24 
keyboard cable 2-6 

Last Error 4-34 

Left Margin (printer setting) 6-14 
letter-quality printers 8-7 
load limit for main unit A-3 

magnets, precautions about 9-6 
main unit 1-4 

margins for printing, specifying 6-14 
memory 4-10 

use in multitasking 4-10 
memory meter 4-29 
Menu Bar 3-13 
Menu button 3-13 
menu shortcut 5-26 
menu titles 5-12 

menus 5-4, 5-12, 5-16, 5-22, 5-24, 
5-25 

browsing through 3-15 

choosing more than one item 4-36 

commands in 3-16 

ghost items in 3-15 

Menu Bar 3-13 

Multiple Choice 4-36 

options in 3-16 

showing menu .titles 5-12 

titles of 5-12 

using 3-13, 5-4 

using without a mouse C-9 

unavailable items in 3-15 
messages, AmigaDOS B-8 
messages, error B-8 

displaying errors B-8 
meter, memory 4-29 
microdisks See disks 
monitors: 

NTSC/PAL 1-9 

RGB 2-7 

attaching 2-7 

care of 9-3 

centering the display 6-7 



Index 



changing size of text displayed on 6-6 

sound connections for 2-9 
mouse 1-5, 1-6 

attaching 2-5 

buttons 3-13 

care of 9-4 

changing mouse speed 6-6 

cleaning 9-4 

illustration of 1-5, 2-6 

Menu button on 3-13 

moving Pointer without a mouse C-8 

pin assignments for connectors A-6 

room required for 2-6 

running out of room for the mouse 3-9 

selecting without a mouse C-9 

Selection button on 3-10 

using the Amiga without a mouse C-8 
mouse ball 2-5 
mouse buttons 3-13 

clicking 3-13 
mouse connectors 2-4 

pin assignments for A- 10 
mouseless operation C-8 

selecting C-10 
moving drawers 4-13 

to a new disk 4-32 
moving projects 4-13 

to a new disk 4-32 
moving screens to the back 4-28 
moving tools 4-13 

to a new disk 4-32 
moving windows to the front 4-19 
Multiple Choice 4-36 
multi-tasking 1-7 

Notepad 4-5, 5-8 

introduction to 5-8 through 5-30 
NTSC/PAL 1 -9 

On/Off switch 3-5 
Open 4-6 

opening disks 3-10 
opening projects 4-9 
opening tools 4-9 

by double-clicking the Selection button 4-9 
operating temperature 4-3 
operations involving disks 4-32 
options, menu 3-16 



Paper Size (printer setting) 6-14 
Paper Type (printer setting) 6-14 
parallel connector 1-13, 8-6 

pin assignments for A-8 
PC emulation 1-10, 1-11,8-5 
pin assignments for connectors A-6 
Pitch (printer setting) 6-14 
pixels 2-7, 4-4 

number of in screens 2-7 
plugging in the Amiga 2-10 
point (of the Pointer) 6-12 
Pointer 1-6 

changing 6-11 

editing 6-6 

moving 3-8 

moving without a mouse C-8 

point of 6-12 

Wait Pointer 3-11 
ports See connectors 
power cord 2-10 

illustration of 2-10 
power, requirements for A-5 
precautions See warnings 
precautions for add-ons 8-3 
Preferences 6-3 

changing the Pointer with 6- 1 1 

getting back settings 6-17 

introduction to 6-3 

saving settings 6-17 

using settings 6-17 
preparing disks for use 3-3 
Printer Graphics Screen 6-15 
printers 1-6, 8-6 

adding 8-6 

list of supported printers 8-6, 8-7 

Preferences settings for 6-13 

specifying parallel or serial 6-14 
projects 

creating 4-5 

discarding 4-12 

duplicating 4-10 

getting information about 4-11 

moving 4-13 

moving to a new disk 4-13 

opening 4-9 

renaming 4-10 

reopening a project 

saving 4-8 



Index 



protect tabs 3-3 

protecting disks 9-6 

pushing windows to the back 4-20 

pushing screens to the back 4-28 

putting together the Amiga 2-3 

Quality (printer setting) 6-14 

radio and television interference 9-7 
RAM 1-3 

adding RAM to the Amiga 8-4 

meter for available RAM 4-29 
RAM disk 4-32, 7-21 
random-access memory See RAM 
Real Time Clock 1-9 
RGB Monitor 2-7 

attaching 2-7 
Redraw 4-34 

redrawing the Workbench 4-34 
removing disks 9-6 

warning about 3-7 
Rename 4-16, 4-14, 4-32 

renaming drawers with 
renaming disks 4-32 
renaming drawers 4-14 
renaming projects 4-10 
renaming tools 4-10 
requester 3-17 

operations involving 4-29 

responding to 4-30 
resetting the Workbench 4-33 
resolution, screen 2-7 
RGB connector 2-7 

pin assignment for A-9 
RGB monitors 2-7 

description of 2-7 

text size on 6-6 
Right Margin (printer setting) 6-14 

Say speech synthesizer 5-49 
screens 4-4 

attributes of 4-4 

changing colors in the 
Workbench screen 6-9 

dragging 4-26 

moving in front 4-27 

moving in behind 4-28 

operations involving 4-25 



redrawing 4-34 
Scroll Arrow 4-21 
Scroll Bar: 

for windows 4-20 
Scroll Box 4-22 
scrolling windows 4-20 
selected window 4-15 
selecting: 

Extended Selection 4-35 

icons 3-10, 5-36 

selecting more than one icon 5-36 

with the mouse 3-10 

without a mouse 6-9 
Selection button 3-10 

selecting with 3-10 
selection shortcuts: 

for Workbench screen 5-26 
SetMap5-51 
serial connector 6-7 
serial port 6-7 

setting the baud rate 6-8 
Service Centers 9-3 
setting the date and time 5-3, 7-14 
settings for printers 6-13 
Shade (printer setting) 6-15 
shielded cables for add-ons 8-3 
SHIFT key C-5 

for Extended Selection 4-35 
shortcuts: 

for Workbench screen 5-26 

menu 5-26 

selection 4-35, 6-9 
size of text, changing 6-6 
Sizing Gadget 4-18 
sizing windows 4-18 
Snapshot 4-34 

Spacing (printer setting) 6-14 
specifications for the Amiga 1-13, A-l 
stereo, connecting an Amiga to 2-9 
straightening up icons 4-3 
sunlight, precautions about 9-3 

television: 

NTSC/PAL 1-9 
television interference 9-7 
temperature, operating A-3 
text: 

changing size of on the display 6-6 



Index 



Threshold (printer setting) 6-16 

tilt, keyboard 2-7 

time: 

changing 5-3, 5-4, 5-5 

showing 5-6 

setting 5-3, 7-14, 7-24 
Title Bar: 

messages displayed in 3-8, 4-4 
tools: 

Calculator 5-30 

Clock 5-3 

demonstration tools 5-3 

discarding 4 12 

duplicating 4-10 

Graphic Dump 5-50 

getting information about 4-11 

Icon Editor 5-33 

icons for 4-4 

moving 4- 13 

moving to a new disk 4-13 

Notepad 5-8 

opening 4-9 

renaming 4- 10 

Say speech synthesizer 5-49 

SetMap 5-5 1 
Trashcan 4-4 

as a drawer 4-15 

discarding drawers using 4-15 

emptying 4-12 

icon for 4-4 
turning on the Amiga 2-10 
type fonts, for the Notepad 5-22 
type styles, for the Notepad 5-24 
typefaces, for the Notepad 5-22 

unavailable menu items 3-15 

using a tool 4-9 

using disks 3-3 

using menus 3-13, 5-12 thru 5-26 

inclusive 
using the Workbench Chapters 4 and 5 

ventilation 2-10 
Version 4-34 
video attributes 4-4 
video cable 2-7 

attaching RGB monitor with 2-7 
video monitor See monitor 
volumes, disk 3-18 



Wait Pointer 3-11 
warnings: 

about add-ons o-3 

about assembling the Amiga 2-3 

about cables 2-5 

about connectors 2-5 

about copying disks 3-18, 4-32 

about discarding tools and projects 
4-12 

about discarding drawers 4-14 

about initializing disks 4-32 

about magnets 9-3 

about moisture 9-3 

about removing disks 3-7 

about resetting 3-19, 4-33 

about sunlight 9-3 

about the case 9-3 

about the keyboard 6-5 

about turning on the Amiga 3-5 
warranty information 2-3 
windows 1-6, 4-4, 5-11 

closing 4-24 

components of 4-16 

dragging 4-17, 5-11 

for tools 4-15 

gadgets in 4-16 

moving to the front 4-19 

opening 4-15 

operations involving 4-15 

overlapping 4-19, 4-20 

pushing to the back 4-20 

scrolling 4-20 

selecting 3-14 

sizing 4-18, 5-11 
Workbench 1-6 

changing the colors 6-9 

illustration of 3-6, 4-3 

internal version number of 1-5 

redrawing the screen 4-34 

resetting 3-19, 4-33 

title bar for 3-8 

version number of 1-5 
Workbench disk 3-3 

inserting 3-6 
Workbench screen 3-6 

shortcuts for 5-26 
working disks 3-16 
Y adapter 2-9 



Index 



C s Commodore® 

AMIGA' 

Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

1200 Wilson Drive •West Chester, PA 19380 

Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

3470 Pharmacy Avenue* Agincourt, Ontario M1W 3G3 

P/N:3l9927-02 Copyright ©1987 by Commodore Electronics Limited. All rights reserved Printed in U.S.A.